Research and Development

Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Ethics


The Nature of Morality: An Introduction to Ethics by Gilbert Harman and Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy by John Rawls and Barbara Herman.


The Moral Development of the Child by Jean Piaget, Stages of Moral Development by Lawrence Kohlberg, Development of Moral Character and Moral Ideology by Lawrence Kohlberg, The Cognitive-developmental Approach to Moral Education by Lawrence Kohlberg, The Development of Morality by Elliot Turiel and Developmental Trajectories in Moral Reasoning across the Life Span by Cheryl Armon and Theo L. Dawson.


Handbook of Moral and Character Education edited by Larry Nucci, Darcia Narváez and Tobias Krettenauer, Review of Instructional Approaches in Ethics Education by Tyler J. Mulhearn, Logan M. Steele, Logan L. Watts, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Michael D. Mumford and Shane Connelly, What Works in Character Education by Marvin W. Berkowitz and Melinda C. Bier, Tell Me a Story: An Evaluation of a Literature-based Character Education Programme by James S. Leming, How Do We Know What Works? A Review and Critique of Current Practices in Ethics Training Evaluation by Logan M. Steele, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Logan L. Watts, Shane Connelly and Michael D. Mumford and Evaluating Ethics Education Programs: A Multi-level Approach by Michael D. Mumford, Logan M. Steele and Logan L. Watts.

Case Method

Teaching and the Case Method: Text, Cases and Readings by Louis B. Barnes, C. Roland Christensen and Abby J. Hansen, Some Preliminary Thoughts on Reasoning with Cases: A Cognitive Science Approach by Rosa L. Pinkus, Micki Chi, Judith McQuaide, Kevin Ashley and Martha Pollack, The Art and Craft of Case Writing by William Naumes and Margaret J. Naumes and Introducing PETE: Computer Support for Teaching Ethics by Ilya M. Goldin, Kevin D. Ashley and Rosa L. Pinkus.

Decision Games

Decision-forcing Cases by Bruce I. Gudmundsson and Tactical Decision Games: Developing Scenario-based Training for Decision-making in Distributed Teams by Kristina Lauche, Margaret Crichton and Petra S. Bayerl.

Role-playing Games

Role-playing Game Studies: A Transmedia Approach edited by José Zagal and Sebastian Deterding and The Functions of Role-playing Games: How Participants Create Community, Solve Problems and Explore Identity by Sarah L. Bowman.


Simulations: A Handbook for Teachers and Trainers by Ken Jones and Simulation as a Classroom Teaching Method by Jerry D. Jones and Catherine E. Barrett.

Classroom Discussions

The Effects of Classroom Moral Discussion upon Children's Level of Moral Judgment by Moshe M. Blatt and Lawrence Kohlberg and The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment by Clinton H. Richards and G. Stoney Alder.


Moral Literacy and the Formation of Character by William J. Bennett, The Place of Story in the Study of Teaching and Teacher Education by Kathy Carter, Moral Imagination: Implications of Cognitive Science for Ethics by Mark Johnson, The Call of Stories: Teaching and the Moral Imagination by Robert Coles, The Moral of the Story Is...: Using Children's Literature in Moral Education by Kevser Koc and Cary A Buzzelli, The Moral of the Story: Content, Process, and Reflection in Moral Education through Narratives by John H. Lockwood, The Use of Stories in Moral Development: New Psychological Reasons for an Old Education Method by Paul C. Vitz, Stories Told and Lessons Learned: Toward a Narrative Approach to Moral Development and Moral Education by Mark Tappan and Lyn M. Brown and Tell Me a Story: An Evaluation of a Literature-based Character Education Programme by James S. Leming.

Interactive Narrative

Fostering Character Education with Games and Interactive Story Generation by Rania Hodhod, Paul Cairns and Daniel Kudenko, Interactive Narrative and Intelligent Tutoring for Ethics Domain by Rania Hodhod and Daniel Kudenko, AEINS: Adaptive Educational Interactive Narrative System to Teach Ethics by Rania Hodhod, Daniel Kudenko and Paul Cairns, EPIC: A Framework for Using Video Games in Ethics Education by Karen Schrier, Teaching Ethics through Gaming Environments: Design, Development and Research Perspectives by Karen Schrier, David Gibson, David Shaenfield, David Simkins and Jose Zagal, Serious Games for Personal and Social Learning & Ethics: Status and Trends by Gonçalo Pereira, António Brisson, Rui Prada, Ana Paiva, Francesco Bellotti, Milos Kravcik and Ralf Klamma, Serious Games for Professional Ethics: An Architecture to Support Personalization by Adam McKenzie and Gord McCalla, Serious Games to Teach Ethics by Rania Hodhod, Daniel Kudenko and Paul Cairns, Ethics and Game Design: Teaching Values through Play by Karen Schrier and David Gibson, Designing Games for Ethics: Models, Techniques and Frameworks by Karen Schrier and David Gibson, Designing and Using Games to Teach Ethics and Ethical Thinking by Karen Schrier, Ethical Reflection and Emotional Involvement in Computer Games by Kirsten Pohl, Creating a Narrative Environment - Choice and Consequence in Single Player Games by Barry Lowndes, Effects of Narrative Structure and Salient Decision Points in Role Playing Games by Christopher Moser and Xiaowen Fang, Narrative Control and Player Experience in Role Playing Games: Decision Points and Branching Narrative Feedback by Christopher Moser and Xiaowen Fang, Designing Role-playing Video Games for Ethical Thinking by Karen Schrier, Moral Dilemmas in Role Playing Digital Games by Cristina Battaglino, Moral Dilemmas in Computer Games by Miguel Sicart, Moral Dilemmas in Serious Games by Jacqueline Krebs and A Framework for Classification and Criticism of Ethical Games by Jamey Stevenson.

Narrative Generation

Generating Stories with Morals by Margaret Sarlej and Malcolm Ryan and Testing Reader Ethical Judgments over the Course of a Narrative by Greg Lessard and Michael Levison.

Models of Ethical Reasoning and Decision-making

Computational Models of Ethical Reasoning: Challenges, Initial Steps, and Future Directions by Bruce M. McLaren, A Conceptual and Computational Model of Moral Decision Making in Human and Artificial Agents by Wendell Wallach, Stan Franklin and Colin Allen, EMA: A Process Model of Appraisal Dynamics by Stacy C. Marsella and Jonathan Gratch, A Neurocognitive Model of the Ethical Decision-making Process: Implications for Study and Practice by Scott J. Reynolds and Where the Brain Appreciates the Moral of a Story by Paolo Nichelli, Jordan Grafman, Pietro Pietrini, Kimberley Clark, Kyu Y. Lee and and Robert Miletich.

Cognitive Modeling

Cognitive Modeling and Intelligent Tutoring by John R. Anderson, C. Franklin Boyle, Albert T. Corbett and Matthew W. Lewis and Cognitive Tutors: Lessons Learned by John R. Anderson, Albert T. Corbett, Kenneth R. Koedinger and Ray Pelletier.

Decision Support

Supporting Ethical Problem Solving: An Exploratory Investigation by Russell W. Robbins, William A. Wallace and Bill Puka, Can Computer Tools Support Ethical Decision Making? by Kevin Mancherjee and Angela C. Sodan, Decision Support for Ethical Problem Solving: A Multi-agent Approach by Russell W. Robbins and William A. Wallace and Towards a Design Science of Ethical Decision Support by Kieran Mathieson.

Ethical Argumentation

An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics by Stephen E. Toulmin, Ethical Argumentation by Douglas Walton and Towards Artificial Argumentation by Katie Atkinson, Pietro Baroni, Massimiliano Giacomin, Anthony Hunter, Henry Prakken, Chris Reed, Guillermo Simari, Matthias Thimm and Serena Villata.