Research and Development

Narrative and Generalization


Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art, and Custom by Edward B. Tylor, An Introduction to the Science of Comparative Mythology and Folklore by George W. Cox, The Golden Bough: A Study in Comparative Religion by James G. Frazer, Morphology of the Folktale by Vladimir Propp, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious by Carl G. Jung, Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: Psychological Studies of Imagination by Maud Bodkin, The Archetypes of Literature by Northrop Frye, The Structural Study of Myth by Claude Lévi-Strauss, Motif-index of Folk-literature: A Classification of Narrative Elements in Folktales, Ballads, Myths, Fables, Mediaeval Romances, Exempla, Fabliaux, Jest-books and Local Legends by Stith Thompson, The Thirty-six Dramatic Situations by Georges Polti, The Basic Patterns of Plot by William F. Harris, The Seven Basic Plots: Why We Tell Stories by Christopher Booker, 20 Master Plots: And How to Build Them by Ronald B. Tobias, The Hero: A Study in Tradition by Fitzroy R. Somerset and The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell.

Computer-aided and Automated Text Interpretation

Computer-aided Text Interpretation

Towards a Decision Support System for Text Interpretation by Alessia Bellusci, Andrea Bellandi, Giulia Benotto, Amedeo Cappelli, Emiliano Giovannetti and Simone Marchi and Computer-aided Text Analysis: An Open-aired Laboratory for Social Sciences by Yurij Castelfranchi.

Computer-automated Text Interpretation

Hermeneutics: From Textual Explication to Computer Understanding? by John C. Mallery, Roger Hurwitz and Gavan Duffy and Natural Language Understanding within a Cognitive Semantics Framework by Inger Lytje.

The Cognitive Science of Interpretive Expertise

Literary Expertise

The Study of Literary Expertise as a Research Strategy by Barbara Graves, A Cognitive Study of Literary Expertise by Barbara Graves and Carl H. Frederiksen, The Effects of Formal Training on Literary Reception by Marisa Bortolussi and Peter Dixon, Expert-novice Differences in Memory, Abstraction, and Reasoning in the Domain of Literature by Colleen M. Zeitz, Some Concrete Advantages of Abstraction: How Experts' Representations Facilitate Reasoning by Colleen M. Zeitz, Literary Expertise and Analogical Reasoning: Building Global Themes by Barbara Graves, The Impact of Expertise: The Role of Experience in Reading Literary Texts by Eva M. Thury and Alexander Friedlander, Constructing Meaning when Reading Poetry: An Expert-novice Study by Joan Peskin, Literary Expertise in the Description of a Fictional Narrative by Barbara Graves and Carl H. Frederiksen, Literary Processing and Interpretation: Towards Empirical Foundations by Peter Dixon, Marisa Bortolussi, Leslie C. Twilley and Alice Leung, Psychonarratology: Foundations for the Empirical Study of Literary Response by Marisa Bortolussi and Peter Dixon and Reading Beyond the Lines: A Critical Review of Cognitive Approaches to Literary Interpretation and Comprehension by Kathryn S. McCarthy.

Artistic Expertise

Art Expertise: A Study of Concepts and Conceptual Spaces by Dorothee Augustin and Helmut Leder, The Role of Formal Art Training on Perception and Aesthetic Judgment of Art Compositions by Calvin F. Nodine, Paul J. Locher and Elizabeth A. Krupinski, Judgments of the Creativity of Artwork from Students and Professional Artists by Mark A. Runco, Kimberly A. Mccarthy and Erling Svenson, Beauty in the Eye of Expert and Nonexpert Beholders: A Study in the Appraisal of Art by Paul Hekkert and Piet C. W. Van Wieringen and Integrating Art Historical, Psychological, and Neuroscientific Explanations of Artists' Advantages in Drawing and Perception by Aaron Kozbelt and William P. Seeley.

Cognitive Literary Studies


The Cognitive Paradigm in Literary Studies by Joseph M. Bizup and Eugene R. Kintgen and The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Literary Studies edited by Lisa Zunshine.

Cognitive Rhetoric

Rhetoric in the Age of Cognitive Science by Jeanne Fahnestock, Critical Rhetoric in the Age of Neuroscience by Brett Ingram and Rhetoric and the Neurosciences: Engagement and Exploration by David Gruber, Jordynn Jack, Lisa Keranen, John M. McKenzie and Matthew B. Morris.

Cognitive Philology

The Psychology of Writing by Ronald T. Kellogg, Writing and the Writer by Frank Smith, The Psychology of Written Composition edited by Carl Bereiter and Marlene Scardamalia, The Psychology of Creative Writing edited by Scott B. Kaufman and James C. Kaufman, The Psychology of the Creative Writer by Frank Barron, Cognitive Models of Writing: Writing Proficiency as a Complex Integrated Skill by Paul Deane, Nora Odendahl, Thomas Quinlan, Mary Fowles, Cyndi Welsh and Jennifer Bivens-Tatum, Writing as a Conceptual Process: A Text-analytical Study of Developmental Aspects by Els van der Pool, Writing Process Theory by Gert Rijlaarsdam and Huub van den Bergh, Identifying the Organization of Writing Processes by John R. Hayes and Linda Flower, A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing by Linda Flower and John R. Hayes, Cognitive Processes in Writing by Lee W. Gregg and Erwin R. Steinberg, In Search of the Writer's Creative Process by Todd Lubart, An Account of Writing as Creative Design by Mike Sharples, A Model of Working Memory in Writing by Ronald T. Kellogg, Knowledge, Processing and Working Memory: Implications for a Theory of Writing by Deborah McCutchen, The Contribution of Different Components of Working Memory to Knowledge Transformation During Writing by David Galbraith, Sheila Ford, Gillian Walker and Jessica Ford, A Capacity Theory of Writing: Working Memory in Composition by Deborah McCutchen, The Visuospatial Dimension of Writing by Thierry Olive and Jean-Michel Passerault, Verbal, Visual, and Spatial Working Memory in Written Language Production by Ronald T. Kellogg, Thierry Olive and Annie Piolat, Verbal, Visual, and Spatial Working Memory Demands During Text Composition by Thierry Olive, Ronald T. Kellogg and Annie Piolat, The Role of Visuospatial Sketchpad in the Written Production of Descriptive and Argumentative Texts by Jean-Michel Passerault and Jérôme Dinet and The Role of Imagination in Narrative Construction by Theodore R. Sarbin.

Cognitive Poetics

Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction by Peter Stockwell, Cognitive Linguistic Approaches to Literary Studies: State of the Art in Cognitive Poetics by Margaret H. Freeman, Towards a Neurocognitive Poetics Model of Literary Reading by Arthur M. Jacobs and Neurocognitive Poetics: Methods and Models for Investigating the Neuronal and Cognitive-affective Bases of Literature Reception by Arthur M. Jacobs.

Cognitive Stylistics

Cognitive Stylistics: Language and Cognition in Text Analysis edited by Elena Semino and Jonathan Culpeper and Stylistics Meets Cognitive Science: Studying Style in Fiction and Readers' Attention from an Inter-disciplinary Perspective by Catherine Emmott, Anthony J. Sanford and Eugene J. Dawydiak.

Cognitive Aesthetics

Aesthetics and Cognitive Science by Gregory Currie, Aesthetics and Cognitive Science by Dustin Stokes, Texture: A Cognitive Aesthetics of Reading by Peter Stockwell and Neuroaesthetics of Literary Reading by David S. Miall.

Cognitive Semiotics

Cognitive Semiotics: An Emerging Field for the Transdisciplinary Study of Meaning by Jordan Zlatev.

Sociocognitive Hermeneutics

Philosophical Hermeneutics and Literary Theory by Joel Weinsheimer, Hermeneutics and the Cognitive Sciences by Shaun Gallagher, Interpreting the Text: A Critical Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Literary Interpretation by Kenneth M. Newton, "Literary Interpretation" and Cognitive Literary Studies by Tony E. Jackson, Literary Interpretation as a Social Act by Cynthia Lewis, Grand Conversations: An Exploration of Meaning Construction in Literature Study Groups by Maryann Eeds and Deborah Wells, The Power of Literary Peer-group Discussions: How Children Collaboratively Negotiate Meaning by Dorothy J. Leal, Negotiating Interpretations of Text: The Role of Student-led Discussions in Understanding Literature by Christian P. Knoeller, Co-constructing Subjectivities and Knowledge in Literacy Class: An Ethnographic–sociocultural Perspective by Kathy Hall, Constructing Multiple Subjectivities in Classroom Literacy Contexts by Sarah J. McCarthey, Novel Readings: The Social Organization of Interpretation by Marjorie L. DeVault, How Literature Discussion Shapes Thinking by Suzanne M. Miller, The Language of Interpretation: Patterns of Discourse in Discussions of Literature by James D. Marshall, Theatrical Performance and Interpretation by James R. Hamilton, Deeper Theatrical Understanding by James R. Hamilton, Theatrical Perception by Bernard Beckerman, Introducing Performative Pragmatics by Douglas Robinson, Interpreting the Moving Image by Noël Carroll, Movies and Meaning: An Introduction to Film by Stephen Prince, Hermeneutics, Reception Aesthetics, and Film Interpretation by Noel King, Style and Meaning: Studies in the Detailed Analysis of Film edited by John Gibbs and Douglas Pye, Interpreting Films by Janet Staiger, Film Art, Argument, and Ambiguity by Murray Smith, The Text and the Interpretive Community by Eugene Goodheart, Audience Semiotics, Interpretive Communities and the Ethnographic Turn in Media Research by Kim C. Schrøder, On the Very Idea of a Discourse Community by Thomas Kent, Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science by Kevin M. Carragee, Texts, Readers and Contexts of Reading: Developments in the Study of Media Audiences by Shaun Moores, Interpreting Audiences: The Ethnography of Media Consumption by Shaun Moores, Anthropology and Mass Media by Debra Spitulnik, The Social Semiotics of Mass Communication by Klaus B. Jensen and Making Sense of Audience Discourses: Towards a Multidimensional Model of Mass Media Reception by Kim C. Schrøder.

Cognitive Narratology

Narratology as a Cognitive Science by David Herman, Narrative Theory and the Cognitive Sciences by David Herman, The Cognitive Turn in Narratology by Elrud Ibsch, The Science of Storytelling: Perspectives from Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, and the Humanities by Frederick L. Aldama, The Neuropsychology of Narrative: Story Comprehension, Story Production and Their Interrelation by Raymond A. Mar, The Neurology of Narrative by Kay Young and Jeffrey L. Saver, Literature and the Brain by Norman N. Holland, Literary Brains: Neuroscience, Criticism, and Theory by Patrick C. Hogan, Such Stuff as Dreams: The Psychology of Fiction by Keith Oatley, Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Readers' Narrative Experiences by Richard J. Gerrig, The Cognitive Science of Fiction by Keith Oatley, Aspects of Literary Comprehension: A Cognitive Approach by Rolf A. Zwaan, Cognitive Processes in Reading Literary Texts: The Influence of Context, Goals and Situations by Dietrich Meutsch, Reading Imaginatively: The Imagination in Cognitive Science and Cognitive Literary Studies by Emily T. Troscianko, Narrative Theory and / or / as Theory of Interpretation by Tom Kindt and Hans-Harald Müller, Narrative Research: Reading, Analysis, and Interpretation by Amia Lieblich and Interpretation and Narrative Understanding by Louis O. Mink.

Computer-aided and Automated Educational Scientific Reasoning and Discovery

Educational Research

Educational Research: An Introduction by Meredith D. Gall, Walter R. Borg and Joyce P. Gall, Introduction to Research in Education by Donald Ary, Lucy C. Jacobs, Christine K. Sorensen and David Walker, Research Methods in Education by Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison, Design-based Research Methods for Studying Learning in Context: Introduction by William A. Sandoval and Philip Bell and Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches by John W. Creswell.

Scientific Reasoning and Discovery

The Computer-aided Discovery of Scientific Knowledge by Pat Langley, Principles of Human—computer Collaboration for Knowledge Discovery in Science by Raúl E. Valdés-Pérez, The Computational Support of Scientific Discovery by Pat Langley, Towards the Automation of Scientific Method by Oliver Ray, Amanda Clare, Maria Liakata, Larisa Soldatova, Ken Whelan and Ross D. King, The Automation of Science by Ross D. King, Jem Rowland, Stephen G. Oliver, Michael Young, Wayne Aubrey, Emma Byrne, Maria Liakata, Magdalena Markham, Pınar Pir, Larisa N. Soldatova, Andrew Sparkes, Kenneth E. Whelan and Amanda Clare, Exploring Science: The Cognition and Development of Discovery Processes by David Klahr, Scientific Discovery and the Psychology of Problem Solving by Herbert A. Simon, The Ubiquity of Discovery by Douglas B. Lenat, Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Processes by Pat Langley, Data-driven Approaches to Empirical Discovery by Pat Langley and Jan M. Zytkow, Automated Discovery of Empirical Laws by Jan M. Zytkow, Enhancing the Plausibility of Law Equation Discovery by Takashi Washio, Hiroshi Motoda and Yuji Niwa, Scientific Knowledge Discovery using Inductive Logic Programming by Stephen Muggleton, Discovering Dynamics: From Inductive Logic Programming to Machine Discovery by Saso Dzeroski and Ljupco Todorovski, Machine Discovery by Herbert A. Simon, Towards a Mathematical Theory of Machine Discovery from Facts by Yasuhito Mukouchi and Setsuo Arikawa, Scientific Discovery Learning with Computer Simulations of Conceptual Domains by Ton De Jong and Wouter R. Van Joolingen, Automatic Construction of Accurate Models of Physical Systems by Elizabeth Bradley and Reinhard Stolle, Multimodal Reasoning for Automatic Model Construction by Reinhard Stolle and Elizabeth Bradley, The Need for Qualitative Reasoning in Automated Modeling: A Case Study by Antonio C. Capelo, Liliana Ironi and Stefania Tentoni, Learning Qualitative Models in the Presence of Noise by George M. Coghill, Simon M. Garrett and Ross D. King, A Computational Model of Scientific Insight by Pat Langley and Randolph Jones, Computational Models of Scientific Discovery and Theory Formation by Jeff Shrager and Pat Langley, An Integrated Framework for Empirical Discovery by Bernd Nordhausen and Pat Langley, Generating Predictions to Aid the Scientific Discovery Process by Randy Jones, Artificial Intelligence Methods for Theory Representation and Hypothesis Formation by Peter D. Karp, Automated Hypothesis Generation Using Extended Inductive Resolution by Charles O. Morgan, An Algorithm for Constructing and Searching Spaces of Alternative Hypotheses by Christopher Griffin, Kelly Testa and Stephen Racunas and On Comparing and Evaluating Scientific Theories edited by Adam Jonkisz and Leon Koj.

Scientific Experimentation

Experimentation in Machine Discovery by Deepak Kulkarni and Herbert A. Simon, The Processes of Scientific Discovery: The Strategy of Experimentation by Deepak Kulkarni and Herbert A. Simon, Experimenting and Theorizing in Theory Formation by Bruce W. Koehn and Jan M. Zytkow, The Design of Discrimination Experiments by Shankar A. Rajamoney, Towards Automatic Experimentation of Educational Knowledge by Yun-En Liu, Travis Mandel, Emma Brunskill and Zoran Popović, Trading Off Scientific Knowledge and User Learning with Multi-armed Bandits by Yun-En Liu, Travis Mandel, Emma Brunskill and Zoran Popović, Building Behavioral Experimentation Engines by Yun-En Liu, Learning Experiments Using AB Testing at Scale by Christopher Chudzicki, David E. Pritchard and Zhongzhou Chen, The Role of A/B Tests in the Study of Large-scale Online Learning by Alexander Savi, Joseph J. Williams, Gunter Maris and Han van der Maas, A Methodology for Discovering How to Adaptively Personalize to Users Using Experimental Comparisons by Joseph J. Williams and Neil Heffernan, Using Randomized Experiments as a Methodological and Conceptual Tool for Improving the Design of Online Learning Environments by Joseph J. Williams and Betsy A. Williams and Using and Designing Platforms for In Vivo Educational Experiments by Joseph J. Williams, Korinn Ostrow, Xiaolu Xiong, Elena Glassman, Juho Kim, Samuel G. Maldonado, Na Li, Justin Reich and Neil Heffernan.

Computer-aided and Automated Educational Planning

Educational Planning

Teacher Planning by Christopher M. Clark and Robert J. Yinger, A Study of Teacher Planning by Robert J. Yinger, The Effect of Planning on Teaching by John A. Zahorik, Teacher Planning, Teacher Behavior, and Student Achievement by Penelope L. Peterson, Ronald W. Marx and Christopher M. Clark, What's in a Plan? Stated and Unstated Plans for Lessons by Greta Morine-Dershimer, Teachers' Planning Models by John A. Zahorik, Three Studies of Teacher Planning by Christopher M. Clark and Robert J. Yinger, Problem Solving, Reasoning, and Analytical Thinking in a Classroom Environment by Joanne K. Robbins, Planning in Classroom Reality: An In-depth Look by Greta Morine-Dershimer, Review of Research on Teachers' Pedagogical Judgments, Plans, and Decisions by Richard J. Shavelson, A Psychological Approach to Research on Teachers' Classroom Decision‐making by James Calderhead, A Study of Teacher Interactive Decision Making by Michael G. Wodlinger, How Teachers Plan Their Courses: Studies in Curriculum Planning by Philip H. Taylor, Experienced Teachers' Planning Practices: A U.S. Survey by Deborah Sardo‐Brown, Using Planning Techniques in Intelligent Tutoring Systems by Darwyn R. Peachey and Gordon I. McCalla, A Curriculum Planning Model for an Intelligent Tutoring System by Byung-In Cho, Joel A. Michael, Allen A. Rovick and Martha W. Evens, Dynamic Planning Models to Support Curriculum Planning and Multiple Tutoring Protocols in Intelligent Tutoring Systems by Byung-In Cho, Instructional Planning in an Intelligent Tutoring System: Combining Global Lesson Plans with Local Discourse Control by Chong W. Woo, Interaction of Discourse Planning, Instructional Planning and Dialogue Management in an Interactive Tutoring System by Reva K. Freedman, An Intelligent Tutoring System That Generates a Natural Language Dialogue Using Dynamic Multi-level Planning by Chong W. Woo, Martha W. Evens, Reva K. Freedman, Michael Glass, Leem S. Shim, Yuemei Zhang, Yujian Zhou and Joel Michael, Toward an Instructional Design Model Based on Learning Objects by Andrés C. Laverde, Yasbley S. Cifuentes and Helda Y. R. Rodriguez, Instructional Planning with Learning Objects by Permanand Mohan, Jim Greer and G. McCalla, Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory by David A. Wiley, A Categorization Scheme for Principles of Sequencing Content by George J. Posner and Kenneth A. Strike, Knowledge Engineering and Planning for the Automated Synthesis of Customized Learning Designs by Luis Castillo, Lluvia Morales, Arturo González-Ferrer, Juan Fernández-Olivares and Óscar García-Pérez, Automatic Generation of Learning Designs: Two Planning Approaches Comparison by Lluvia Morales, Automatic Generation of User Adapted Learning Designs: An AI-Planning Proposal by Lluvia Morales, Luis Castillo, Juan Fernandez-Olivares and Arturo Gonzalez-Ferrer, Modeling E-learning Activities in Automated Planning by Antonio Garrido, Eva Onaindia, Lluvia Morales, Luis Castillo, Susana Fernández and Daniel Borrajo, On the Automatic Compilation of E-learning Models to Planning by Antonio Garrido, Susana Fernández, Lluvia Morales, Eva Onaindía, Daniel Borrajo and Luis Castillo, Automatic Generation of Temporal Planning Domains for E-learning Problems by Luis Castillo, Lluvia Morales, Arturo González-Ferrer, Juan Fdez-Olivares, Daniel Borrajo and Eva Onaindía, A Standards-based Modelling Approach for Dynamic Generation of Adaptive Learning Scenarios by Jesus Boticario and Olga C. Santos, Planning for Conditional Learning Routes by Lluvia Morales, Luis Castillo and Juan Fernández-Olivares, Constraint Programming for Planning Routes in an E-learning Environment by Antonio Garrido, Eva Onaindıa and Oscar Sapena, E-learning and Intelligent Planning: Improving Content Personalization by Antonio Garrido and Lluvia Morales, Planning and Execution in a Personalised E-learning Setting by Lluvia Morales, Antonio Garrido and Ivan Serina, Pedagogically Founded Courseware Generation Based on HTN-planning by Carsten Ullrich and Erica Melis, An Architecture for a Self‐improving Instructional Planner for Intelligent Tutoring Systems by Stuart A. MacMillan and Derek H. Sleeman, Decision Theoretic Instructional Planner for Intelligent Tutoring Systems by Noboru Matsuda and Kurt VanLehn and Using Case-based Reasoning in Instructional Planning: Towards a Hybrid Self-improving Instructional Planner by Jon A. Elorriaga and Isabel Fernández-Castro.

Machine Learning

A Review of Machine Learning for Automated Planning by Sergio Jiménez, Tomás de la Rosa, Susana Fernández, Fernando Fernández and Daniel Borrajo, Learning-assisted Automated Planning: Looking Back, Taking Stock, Going Forward by Terry Zimmerman and Subbarao Kambhampati, Machine Learning Methods for Planning edited by Steven Minton, Learning Macro-actions for Arbitrary Planners and Domains by Muhammad A. H. Newton, John Levine, Maria Fox and Derek Long, Generation of Macro-operators via Investigation of Action Dependencies in Plans by Lukáš Chrpa, Learning Action Strategies for Planning Domains by Roni Khardon, Learning Generalized Policies in Planning Using Concept Languages by Mario Martin and H. Wector Geffner, Learning Relational Decision Trees for Guiding Heuristic Planning by Tomás De La Rosa, Sergio J. Celorrio and Daniel Borrajo, Learning Search Control Knowledge: An Explanation-based Approach by Steven Minton, Learning Heuristic Functions from Relaxed Plans by Sung W. Yoon, Alan Fern and Robert Givan, Discriminative Learning of Beam-search Heuristics for Planning by Yuehua Xu, Alan Fern and Sung Wook Yoon, Learning Hierarchical Task Networks for Nondeterministic Planning Domains by Chad Hogg, Ugur Kuter and Héctor Muñoz-Avila, Reinforcement Learning and Automated Planning: A Survey by Ioannis Partalas, Dimitris Vrakas and Ioannis Vlahavas, Combining Reinforcement Learning with Symbolic Planning by Matthew Grounds and Daniel Kudenko, Autonomous Learning of Action Models for Planning by Neville Mehta, Prasad Tadepalli and Alan Fern, Efficient Learning of Action Models for Planning by Neville Mehta, Prasad Tadepalli and Alan Fern, Learning by Experimentation: Incremental Refinement of Incomplete Planning Domains by Yolanda Gil, Learning by Observation and Practice: An Incremental Approach for Planning Operator Acquisition by Xuemei Wang, Learning Planning Operators in Real-world, Partially Observable Environments by Matthew D. Schmill, Tim Oates and Paul R. Cohen, Inductive Learning of Reactive Action Models by Scott Benson, Learning Partially Observable Deterministic Action Models by Eyal Amir and Allen Chang, Planning While Learning Operators by Xuemei Wang and An Integrated Approach of Learning, Planning, and Execution by Ramón García-Martínez and Daniel Borrajo.

Modeling Users and Comprehension to Enhance Natural Language and Narrative Generation

Genericity and Specificity

User Modeling via Stereotypes by Elaine Rich, Stereotypes and User Modeling by Elaine Rich and User Modeling with Personas by Plinio T. A. Junior and Lucia V. L. Filgueiras.

User Modeling

User and Discourse Models for Multimodal Communication by Wolfgang Wahlster, Modeling the User in Natural Language Systems by Robert Kass and Tim Finin, User Models in Dialog Systems by Wolfgang Wahlster and Alfred Kobsa and Predicting User Mental States in Spoken Dialogue Systems by Zoraida Callejas, David Griol and Ramón López-Cózar.

Player Modeling

Using Sequential Observations to Model and Predict Player Behavior by Brent Harrison and David L. Roberts, Player Modeling, Search Algorithms and Strategies in Multi-player Games by Ulf Lorenz and Tobias Tscheuschner, Automated Planning and Player Modeling for Interactive Storytelling by Alejandro Ramirez and Vadim Bulitko, Towards Generic Models of Player Experience by Noor Shaker, Mohammad Shaker and Mohamed Abou-Zleikha and Modeling Player Experience for Content Creation by Christopher Pedersen, Julian Togelius and Georgios N. Yannakakis.

Student Modeling

Student Modeling Approaches: A Literature Review for the Last Decade by Konstantina Chrysafiadi and Maria Virvou, Using a Simulated Student for Instructional Design by Joseph S. Mertz and Evaluating a Simulated Student Using Real Students Data for Training and Testing by Noboru Matsuda, William W. Cohen, Jonathan Sewall, Gustavo Lacerda and Kenneth R. Koedinger.

Cognitive Modeling

The Role of Cognitive Modeling in Achieving Communicative Intentions by Marilyn A. Walker and Owen Rambow, Cognitive Modeling: A Linguistic Perspective by Ibáñez de Mendoza, Francisco J. Ruiz and Alicia G. Masegosa, Utterance Interpretation and Cognitive Models edited by Philippe de Brabanter and Mikhail Kissine, Cognitive Modeling and Intelligent Tutoring by John R. Anderson, C. Franklin Boyle, Albert T. Corbett and Matthew W. Lewis, Cognitive Modeling: Knowledge, Reasoning and Planning for Intelligent Characters by Funge John, Xiaoyuan Tu and Demetri Terzopoulos, Using a Cognitive Architecture to Plan Dialogs for the Adaptive Explanation of Proofs by Armin Fiedler, Cognitive Systems: Human Cognitive Models in Systems Design edited by Chris Forsythe, Michael L. Bernard and Timothy E. Goldsmith, QUEST: A Cognitive Model of Question Answering by Arthur C. Graesser and Stanley P. Franklin, Question Answering in the Context of Stories by Arthur C. Graesser, Kathy L. Lang and Richard M. Roberts and Question Answering in the Context of Stories Generated by Computers by Rogelio E. Cardona-Rivera, Thomas W. Price, David R. Winer and R. Michael Young.

Reading Comprehension

Comprehension: A Paradigm for Cognition by Walter Kintsch, Toward a Comprehensive Model of Comprehension by Danielle S. McNamara and Joe Magliano, A Naturalistic, Functional Approach to Modeling Language Comprehension by Jerry T. Ball, A Cognitively Plausible Model of Language Comprehension by Jerry T. Ball, Computational Cognitive Modeling of Reading Comprehension at the Word Level by Mary Freiman and Jerry T. Ball, Computational Principles of Working Memory in Sentence Comprehension by Richard L. Lewis, Shravan Vasishth and Julie A. Van Dyke, Toward an Integrated Model of Sentence Processing in Reading by Felix Engelmann, Think Aloud: Modeling the Cognitive Processes of Reading Comprehension by Beth Davey and Talking about Reading as Thinking: Modeling the Hidden Complexities of Online Reading Comprehension by Julie Coiro.

Narrative Comprehension

Narrative Comprehension by Rolf A. Zwaan, Joseph P. Magliano and Arthur C. Graesser, How Does the Mind Construct and Represent Stories? by Arthur C. Graesser, Brent Olde and Bianca Klettke, Comparing Cognitive and Computational Models of Narrative Structure by David B. Christian and Robert M. Young, An Architecture of Narrative Memory by Carlos León, Towards Narrative-based Knowledge Representation in Cognitive Systems by Nicolas Szilas, A Knowledge Representation That Models Memory in Narrative Comprehension by Rogelio E. Cardona-Rivera and R. Michael Young, From Episodic Memory to Narrative in a Cognitive Architecture by Tory S. Anderson, Toward a Situation Model in a Cognitive Architecture by Stuart M. Rodgers, Christopher W. Myers, Jerry Ball and Mary D. Freiman and Cognitive Models of Discourse Comprehension for Narrative Generation by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young.

Situation Models

The Construction of Situation Models in Narrative Comprehension: An Event-indexing Model by Rolf A. Zwaan, Mark C. Langston and Arthur C. Graesser, Situation Models in Language Comprehension and Memory by Rolf A. Zwaan and Gabriel A. Radvansky, Accessibility and Situation Models in Narrative Comprehension by Daniel G. Morrow, Steven L. Greenspan and Gordon H. Bower, Situation Models, Mental Simulations, and Abstract Concepts in Discourse Comprehension by Rolf A. Zwaan and Toward a Situation Model in a Cognitive Architecture by Stuart M. Rodgers, Christopher W. Myers, Jerry Ball and Mary D. Freiman.

Attention and Focus

Focusing and Discourse by Candace L. Sidner, Attention, Intentions, and the Structure of Discourse by Barbara J. Grosz and Candace L. Sidner, Focus of Attention: Constraining What Can Be Said Next by Kathleen F. McCoy and Jeannette Cheng and Using Focus to Constrain Language Generation by Kathleen R. McKeown.


Constructing Inferences during Narrative Text Comprehension by Arthur C. Graesser, Murray Singer and Tom Trabasso, A Computational Model of Inferencing in Narrative by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young, Consulting a User Model to Address a User's Inferences during Content Planning by Ingrid Zukerman and Richard McConachy, A Method for Generating Narrative Discourse to Prompt Inferences by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young, Measuring the Inference Load of a Text by Susan Kemper, A Unified Model for Predictive and Bridging Inferences by Franz Schmalhofer, Mark A. McDaniel and Dennis Keefe and Inferences about Mental States by Jason P. Mitchell.

Social Cognition

The Comprehension and Validation of Social Information by Robert S. Wyer and Gabriel A. Radvansky, Narrative-based Representations of Social Knowledge: Their Construction and Use in Comprehension, Memory, and Judgment by Robert S. Wyer, Rashmi Adaval and Stanley J. Colcombe, Social Comprehension and Judgment: The Role of Situation Models, Narratives, and Implicit Theories by Robert S. Wyer, Mental Simulation in Language Comprehension and Social Cognition by Rolf A. Zwaan and The Neural Bases of Social Cognition and Story Comprehension by Raymond A. Mar.

Affect and Emotion

A Call for Emotion Modeling in Interactive Storytelling by Sergio P. Hernandez and Vadim Bulitko, Emotion-based Interactive Storytelling with Artificial Intelligence by Sergio P. Hernandez, Vadim Bulitko and Emilie St. Hilaire, Computational Modeling of Players' Emotional Response Patterns to the Story Events of Video Games by Mijin Kim and Young Doh and Emotion-driven Narrative Generation by Brian O'Neill and Mark Riedl.

Cognitive Load

Realistic Cognitive Load Modeling for Enhancing Shared Mental Models in Human-agent Collaboration by Xiaocong Fan and John Yen and Modeling Cognitive Loads for Evolving Shared Mental Models in Human–agent Collaboration by Xiaocong Fan and John Yen.


Experiments with Discourse-level Choices and Readability by Sandra Williams, Ehud Reiter and Liesl Osman, Natural Language Generation (NLG) of Discourse Relations for Different Reading Levels by Sandra Williams and Enabling Text Readability Awareness during the Micro Planning Phase of NLG Applications by Priscilla Moraes, Kathleen McCoy and Sandra Carberry.


Flow by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Task Characteristics and the Experience of Optimal Flow in Human—computer Interaction by Jawaid A. Ghani and Satish P. Deshpande, The Dimensionality and Correlates of Flow in Human-computer Interactions by Jane Webster, Linda Klebe Trevino and Lisa Ryan, Towards Automatically Detecting Whether Student Is in Flow by Po-Ming Lee, Sin-Yu Jheng and Tzu-Chien Hsiao, Measuring Flow in Gaming Platforms by Azmi Omar and Nazlena Mohamad Ali and Dramatic Flow in Interactive 3D Narrative by Alyx Macfadyen, Andrew Stranieri and John Yearwood.

Natural Language Generation

Acquiring and Using Limited User Models in NLG by Ehud Reiter, Somayajulu Sripada and Sandra Williams, Natural Language Processing and User Modeling: Synergies and Limitations by Ingrid Zukerman and Diane Litman and Adaptive Generation in Dialogue Systems Using Dynamic User Modeling by Srinivasan Janarthanam and Oliver Lemon.

Narrative Generation

Reader-model-based Story Generation by Peter Mawhorter, Cognitive Models of Discourse Comprehension for Narrative Generation by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young and A Method for Generating Narrative Discourse to Prompt Inferences by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young.

Natural Language Generation and Style


A Dictionary of Stylistics by Katie Wales, Stylistics: A Resource Book for Students by Paul Simpson, Style as Option by Jane R. Walpole, Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature by Henry G. Widdowson, Linguistics and Literary Style by Donald C. Freeman, The Stylistics of Fiction: A Literary-linguistic Approach by Michael J. Toolan and Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose by Geoffrey N. Leech and Mick Short.

Computational Stylistics

A Preface to Computational Stylistics by Sally Y. Sedelow and Walter A. Sedelow, On Computational Stylistics: Mining Literary Texts for the Extraction of Characterizing Stylistic Patterns by Mohamed A. Boukhaled, A Computational Theory of Goal-directed Style in Syntax by Chrysanne Di Marco and Graeme Hirst, The Rest of the Story: Distilling Meaning from Stylistic Variation by Shlomo Argamon and Moshe Koppel and The Rest of the Story: Finding Meaning in Stylistic Variation by Shlomo Argamon and Moshe Koppel.

Corpus Stylistics

An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics by Graeme Kennedy, Stylistics: Corpus Approaches by Martin Wynne, Corpus Stylistics: Bridging the Gap between Linguistic and Literary Studies by Michaela Mahlberg, Stylogenetics: Clustering-based Stylistic Analysis of Literary Corpora by Kim Luyckx, Walter Daelemans and Edward Vanhoutte, Corpus Stylistics: Speech, Writing and Thought Presentation in a Corpus of English Writing by Elena Semino and Mick Short and Corpus Stylistics: A Corpus-based Study of Speech, Thought and Writing Presentation in Narratives by Elena Semino and Mick Short.

Cognitive Stylistics

Cognitive Stylistics: Language and Cognition in Text Analysis edited by Elena Semino and Jonathan Culpeper, Stylistics Meets Cognitive Science: Studying Style in Fiction and Readers' Attention from an Interdisciplinary Perspective by Catherine Emmott, Anthony J Sanford and E Dawydiak, Textual Choices in Discourse: A View from Cognitive Linguistics edited by Barbara Dancygier, José Sanders and Lieven Vandelanotte, A Cognitive Stylistic Approach to Mind Style in Narrative Fiction by Elena Semino, Language Understanding and the Cognitive Ergonomics of Style by Anthony J. Sanford and Linda M. Moxey and On Cognitive Poetics and Stylistics by Peter Stockwell.


Affect Detection: An Interdisciplinary Review of Models, Methods, and Their Applications by Rafael A. Calvo and Sidney D'Mello and Emotion: Stylistic Approaches by Michael Burke.

Sentiment and Opinion

Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis by Bo Pang and Lillian Lee, A Stylometric Approach for Opinion Mining by Gaël Lejeune and Frédéric Dumonceaux, Vocabulary Choice as an Indicator of Perspective by Beata Beigman Klebanov, Eyal Beigman and Daniel Diermeier and Stance, Style, and the Linguistic Individual by Barbara Johnstone.


Language and Personality by Adrian Furnham, Automatic Recognition of Personality in Conversation by François Mairesse and Marilyn Walker, Computational Models of Personality Recognition through Language by François Mairesse and Marilyn Walker, Using Linguistic Cues for the Automatic Recognition of Personality in Conversation and Text by François Mairesse, Marilyn A. Walker, Matthias R. Mehl and Roger K. Moore, Lexical Predictors of Personality Type by Shlomo Argamon, Sushant Dhawle, Moshe Koppel and James W. Pennebaker, Identification of Author Personality Traits Using Stylistic Features by Ifrah Pervaz, Iqra Ameer, Abdul Sittar and Rao M. A. Nawab and Controlling User Perceptions of Linguistic Style: Trainable Generation of Personality Traits by François Mairesse and Marilyn A. Walker.

Author Identification

Authorship Attribution by Patrick Juola, Stylistic Analysis and Authorship Studies by Hugh Craig, Use of Language as a Cognitive Biometric Trait by Neeti Pokhriyal, Ifeoma Nwogu and Vengatesan Govindaraju, Automatically Profiling the Author of an Anonymous Text by Shlomo Argamon, Moshe Koppel, James W. Pennebaker and Jonathan Schler, A Survey of Modern Authorship Attribution Methods by Efstathios Stamatatos, Quantitative Authorship Attribution: An Evaluation of Techniques by Jack Grieve, A Comparative Study of Machine Learning Methods for Authorship Attribution by Matthew L. Jockers and Daniela M. Witten, Explanation in Computational Stylometry by Walter Daelemans and Empirical Evaluations of Language-based Author Identification Techniques by Carole E. Chaski.


Stylistics and Social Cognition by Lesley Jeffries, Dan McIntyre and Derek Bousfield, Sociolinguistic Styles by Juan M. Hernández-Campoy, Style and Sociolinguistic Variation by Penelope Eckert and John R. Rickford, Sociolinguistics: The Study of Speakers' Choices by Florian Coulmas and Language Style as Audience Design by Allan Bell.


Analysis and Generation of Formal and Informal Text by Fadi A. Sheikha and Generation of Formal and Informal Sentences by Fadi A. Sheikha and Diana Inkpen.


Style versus Expression in Literary Narratives by Ozlem Uzuner and Boris Katz and Capturing Expression Using Linguistic Information by Ozlem Uzuner and Boris Katz.

Natural Language Generation

Generating Texts with Style by Richard Power, Donia Scott and Nadjet Bouayad-Agha, Generating Texts in Different Styles by Ehud Reiter and Sandra Williams, Stylistic Decision-making in Natural Language Generation by Stephen Green and Chrysanne DiMarco, Affective Natural Language Generation by Fiorella De Rosis and Floriana Grasso, Three Approaches to Generating Texts in Different Styles by Ehud Reiter and Sandra Williams, A Framework for Stylistically Controlled Generation by Daniel S. Paiva and Roger Evans and A Computational Theory of Prose Style for Natural Language Generation by David D. McDonald and James D. Pustejovsky.

Natural Language Generation and Revision

Writing and Revision

Research on Revision in Writing by Jill Fitzgerald, Analyzing Revision by Lester Faigley and Stephen Witte, Cognitive Processes in Revision by John R. Hayes, Linda Flower, Karen A. Schriver, James Stratman and Linda Carey, Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers by Nancy Sommers, Detection, Diagnosis, and the Strategies of Revision by Linda Flower, John R. Hayes, Linda Carey, Karen Schriver and James Stratman, The Effects of Revising with a Word Processor on Written Composition by Elana Joram, Earl Woodruff, Mary Bryson and Peter H. Lindsay, The Effects of Word Processing on Students' Writing Quality and Revision Strategies by Ronald D. Owston, Sharon Murphy and Herbert H. Wideman, Toward Revision-sensitive Feedback in Automated Writing Evaluation by Rod D. Roscoe, Adam C. Johnson, Matthew E. Jacovina, Danielle S. McNamara and Laura K. Allen, Feedback and Revising in an Intelligent Tutoring System for Writing Strategies by Rod D. Roscoe, Erica L. Snow and Danielle S. McNamara and Automated Detection of Essay Revising Patterns: Applications for Intelligent Feedback in a Writing Tutor by Rod D. Roscoe, Erica L. Snow, Laura K. Allen and Danielle S. McNamara.

Natural Language Generation and Revision

A Model of Revision in Natural Language Generation by Marie M. Vaughan and David D. McDonald, The Implications of Revisions for Natural Language Generation by Marie W. Meteer, Text Revision: A Model and Its Implementation by Kentaro Inui, Takenobu Tokunaga and Hozumi Tanaka, Reviewing as a Component of the Text Generation Process by Masoud Yazdani, Kalos - A System for Natural Language Generation with Revision by Ben E. Cline and Jane T. Nutter, Knowledge Intensive Natural Language Generation with Revision by Ben E. Cline and Dynamically Improving Explanations: A Revision-based Approach to Explanation Generation by Charles B. Callaway and James C. Lester.

Natural language Generation and Evaluation

Towards Evaluation in Natural Language Generation by Robert Dale and Chris Mellish, Evaluation in the Context of Natural Language Generation by Chris Mellish and Robert Dale, Comparing Automatic and Human Evaluation of NLG Systems by Anja Belz and Ehud Reiter, Evaluating the Effects of Natural Language Generation Techniques on Reader Satisfaction by Charles Callaway and James Lester, STORYEVAL: An Empirical Evaluation Framework for Narrative Generation by Jonathan P. Rowe, Scott W. McQuiggan, Jennifer L. Robison, Derrick R. Marcey and James C. Lester and Evaluating Planners, Plans, and Planning Agents by Martha E. Pollack.

Multi-criteria Search and Planning

Multi‐criteria Optimization by Dan Stefanoiu, Pierre Borne, Dumitru Popescu, Florin G. Filip and Abdelkader El Kamel, Multicriteria Heuristic Search by Lawrence Mandow and J. L. Pérez de la Cruz, Multiobjective Heuristic Search: An Introduction to Intelligent Search Methods for Multicriteria Optimization by Pallab Dasgupta, P. P. Chakrabarti and S. C. DeSarkar, Multiobjective Heuristic State-space Planning by Ioannis Refanidis and Ioannis Vlahavas and Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Techniques in Planning by Bryan H. Massam.

Time-dependent Planning

An Analysis of Time-dependent Planning by Thomas L. Dean and Mark S. Boddy and Solving Time-dependent Planning Problems by Mark S. Boddy and Thomas L. Dean.

Anytime Algorithms

Using Anytime Algorithms in Intelligent Systems by Shlomo Zilberstein, Operational Rationality through Compilation of Anytime Algorithms by Shlomo Zilberstein, Anytime Heuristic Search by Eric A. Hansen and Rong Zhou and Monitoring and Control of Anytime Algorithms: A Dynamic Programming Approach by Eric A. Hansen and Shlomo Zilberstein.

Planning and Generating Sequences of Exercises for the Assessment and Development of Reading and Narrative Comprehension


The Psychology of Reading and Language Comprehension by Marcel A. Just and Patricia A. Carpenter, Understanding Reading: A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read by Frank Smith, A Cognitive-developmental Theory of Reading Acquisition by George Marsh, Morton Friedman, Veronica Welch and Peter Desberg and The Instruction of Reading Comprehension by P. David Pearson and Margaret C. Gallagher.

Reading Comprehension

Comprehension: A Paradigm for Cognition by Walter Kintsch, Toward a Comprehensive Model of Comprehension by Danielle S. McNamara and Joe Magliano, Cognition, Metacognition, and Reading by Donna-Lynn Forrest-Pressley and Thomas G. Waller, The Neural Correlates of Strategic Reading Comprehension: Cognitive Control and Discourse Comprehension by Jarrod Moss, Christian D. Schunn, Walter Schneider, Danielle S. McNamara and Kurt VanLehn, Reading Comprehension Strategies: Theories, Interventions, and Technologies edited by Danielle S. McNamara, The Acquisition of Reading Comprehension Skill by Charles A. Perfetti, Nicole Landi and Jane Oakhill, Developing Reading Skills: A Practical Guide to Reading Comprehension Exercises by Frangoise Grellet and Effective Practices for Developing Reading Comprehension by Nell K. Duke and P. David Pearson.

Narrative Comprehension

Narrative Comprehension by Rolf A. Zwaan, Joseph P. Magliano and Arthur C. Graesser, Narrative Comprehension: A Discourse Perspective by Catherine Emmott, Narrative Competence: Play, Storytelling, and Story Comprehension by Lee Galda, Toward a Model of Children's Story Comprehension by Eugene Charniak, Inferential and Memory Skills in Children's Comprehension of Stories by Oakhill Jane, What's in a Story: An Approach to Comprehension and Instruction by Nancy L. Stein and Tom Trabasso, Situation Models and Concepts in Story Comprehension by Arthur C. Graesser and Katja Wiemer-Hastings, Mental Imagery, Text Illustrations, and Children's Story Comprehension and Recall by Linda B. Gambrell and Paula Brooks Jawitz, Imagination and Simulation in Audience Responses to Fiction by Alvin Goldman, The Neural Bases of Social Cognition and Story Comprehension by Raymond A. Mar, The Neuropsychology of Narrative: Story Comprehension, Story Production and Their Interrelation by Raymond A. Mar, Narrative Representation and Comprehension by Arthur C. Graesser, Jonathan M. Golding and Debra L. Long, A Computer's Understanding of Literature by Arthur C. Graesser, Nia Dowell and Christian Moldovan and Cognitive Models of Discourse Comprehension for Narrative Generation by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young.

Narrative Generation

Plans and Planning in Narrative Generation: A Review of Plan-based Approaches to the Generation of Story, Discourse and Interactivity in Narratives by R. Michael Young, Stephen G. Ware, B. A. Cassell and Justus Robertson, A Survey on Story Generation Techniques for Authoring Computational Narratives by Ben Kybartas and Rafael Bidarra and A Method for Generating Narrative Discourse to Prompt Inferences by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young.

Natural Language Generation

Survey of the State of the Art in Natural Language Generation: Core Tasks, Applications and Evaluation by Albert Gatt and Emiel Krahmer, Building Natural Language Generation Systems by Ehud Reiter, Robert Dale and Zhiwei Feng, Natural Language Generation from Plans by Chris Mellish and Roger Evans, Experiences with Planning for Natural Language Generation by Alexander Koller and Ronald Petrick and Automated Planning for Situated Natural Language Generation by Konstantina Garoufi and Alexander Koller.


Readability: A View from Cognitive Psychology by Walter Kintsch and James R. Miller, Writeability: The Principles of Writing for Increased Comprehension by Edward B. Fry, Revisiting Readability: A Unified Framework for Predicting Text Quality by Emily Pitler and Ani Nenkova, Cognitively Motivated Features for Readability Assessment by Lijun Feng, Noémie Elhadad and Matt Huenerfauth, Computational Assessment of Text Readability: A Survey of Current and Future Research by Kevyn Collins-Thompson, Role of Rhetorical Structure in Text Comprehension by Walter Kintsch and Craig J. Yarbrough, Understanding Paragraph Structure by Maurice Williams and Virginia M. R. Stevens, Expository Paragraph Properties That Influence Literal Recall by Mark W. Aulls, Comprehension and Recall of Text as a Function of Content Variables by Walter Kintsch, Eli Kozminsky, William J. Streby, Gail McKoon and Janice M. Keenan, Text Structure and Reading Time for Sentences by Randolph K. Cirilo and Donald J. Foss, Sentence Structure and Retention in Good and Poor Readers by Rhona Weinstein and M. Sam Rabinovitch, The Effects of Text Manipulation and Multiple Reading Strategies on the Reading Performance of Good and Poor Readers by Nancy E. Taylor, Margaret R. Wade and Frank R. Yekovich, Facilitating Reading Comprehension through Text Structure Manipulation by Jana M. Mason and Janet R. Kendall, Reading Rate and Retention as a Function of the Number of Propositions in the Base Structure of Sentences by Walter Kintsch and Janice M. Keenan and The Role of Phrase Structure in the Recall of Meaningful Verbal Material by Jeremy M. Anglin and George A. Miller.

Poetics and Aesthetics

Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics by Shlomith Rimmon-Kenan, The Poetics, Aesthetics, and Philosophy of Narrative by Noël Carroll, Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction by Peter Stockwell and Texture: A Cognitive Aesthetics of Reading by Peter Stockwell.


Assessing Listening by Gary Buck, Assessing Reading by John C. Alderson, Assessing Reading Comprehension by Janette K. Klingner, Automatically Generating Reading Comprehension Look-back Strategy Questions from Expository Texts by Donna M. Gates, Automatic Generation of Short Answer Questions for Reading Comprehension Assessment by Yan Huang and Lianzhen He, Using Automated Questions to Assess Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Effects of Tutorial Interventions by Jack Mostow, Joseph Beck, Juliet Bey, Andrew Cuneo, June Sison, Brian Tobin and Joseph Valeri, Can Automated Questions Scaffold Children's Reading Comprehension by Joseph E. Beck, Jack Mostow and Juliet Bey, Pedagogical Evaluation of Automatically Generated Questions by Karen Mazidi and Rodney D Nielsen, Automated Analysis of Essays and Open-ended Verbal Responses by Arthur C. Graesser and Danielle S. McNamara, Use of Computers to Analyze and Score Essays and Open-ended Verbal Responses by Arthur C. Graesser and Danielle S. McNamara, What Makes a Good Answer? The Role of Context in Question Answering by Jimmy Lin, Dennis Quan, Vineet Sinha, Karun Bakshi, David Huynh, Boris Katz and David R. Karger, What Makes a Good Answer to a Question?: Testing a Psychological Model of Question Answering in the Context of Narrative Text by Jonathan M. Golding, Arthur C. Graesser and Keith K. Millis, QUEST: A Cognitive Model of Question Answering by Arthur C. Graesser and Stanley P. Franklin, Question Answering in the Context of Stories by Arthur C. Graesser, Kathy L. Lang and Richard M. Roberts and Question Answering in the Context of Stories Generated by Computers by Rogelio E. Cardona-Rivera, Thomas W. Price, David R. Winer and R. Michael Young.