Research and Development

Modeling Users and Comprehension to Enhance Natural Language and Narrative Generation

Genericity and Specificity

User Modeling via Stereotypes by Elaine Rich, Stereotypes and User Modeling by Elaine Rich and User Modeling with Personas by Plinio T. A. Junior and Lucia V. L. Filgueiras.

User Modeling

User and Discourse Models for Multimodal Communication by Wolfgang Wahlster, Modeling the User in Natural Language Systems by Robert Kass and Tim Finin, User Models in Dialog Systems by Wolfgang Wahlster and Alfred Kobsa and Predicting User Mental States in Spoken Dialogue Systems by Zoraida Callejas, David Griol and Ramón López-Cózar.

Player Modeling

Using Sequential Observations to Model and Predict Player Behavior by Brent Harrison and David L. Roberts, Player Modeling, Search Algorithms and Strategies in Multi-player Games by Ulf Lorenz and Tobias Tscheuschner, Automated Planning and Player Modeling for Interactive Storytelling by Alejandro Ramirez and Vadim Bulitko, Towards Generic Models of Player Experience by Noor Shaker, Mohammad Shaker and Mohamed Abou-Zleikha and Modeling Player Experience for Content Creation by Christopher Pedersen, Julian Togelius and Georgios N. Yannakakis.

Student Modeling

Student Modeling Approaches: A Literature Review for the Last Decade by Konstantina Chrysafiadi and Maria Virvou, Using a Simulated Student for Instructional Design by Joseph S. Mertz and Evaluating a Simulated Student Using Real Students Data for Training and Testing by Noboru Matsuda, William W. Cohen, Jonathan Sewall, Gustavo Lacerda and Kenneth R. Koedinger.

Cognitive Modeling

The Role of Cognitive Modeling in Achieving Communicative Intentions by Marilyn A. Walker and Owen Rambow, Cognitive Modeling: A Linguistic Perspective by Ibáñez de Mendoza, Francisco J. Ruiz and Alicia G. Masegosa, Utterance Interpretation and Cognitive Models edited by Philippe de Brabanter and Mikhail Kissine, Cognitive Modeling and Intelligent Tutoring by John R. Anderson, C. Franklin Boyle, Albert T. Corbett and Matthew W. Lewis, Cognitive Modeling: Knowledge, Reasoning and Planning for Intelligent Characters by Funge John, Xiaoyuan Tu and Demetri Terzopoulos, Using a Cognitive Architecture to Plan Dialogs for the Adaptive Explanation of Proofs by Armin Fiedler, Cognitive Systems: Human Cognitive Models in Systems Design edited by Chris Forsythe, Michael L. Bernard and Timothy E. Goldsmith, QUEST: A Cognitive Model of Question Answering by Arthur C. Graesser and Stanley P. Franklin, Question Answering in the Context of Stories by Arthur C. Graesser, Kathy L. Lang and Richard M. Roberts and Question Answering in the Context of Stories Generated by Computers by Rogelio E. Cardona-Rivera, Thomas W. Price, David R. Winer and R. Michael Young.

Reading Comprehension

Comprehension: A Paradigm for Cognition by Walter Kintsch, Toward a Comprehensive Model of Comprehension by Danielle S. McNamara and Joe Magliano, A Naturalistic, Functional Approach to Modeling Language Comprehension by Jerry T. Ball, A Cognitively Plausible Model of Language Comprehension by Jerry T. Ball, Computational Cognitive Modeling of Reading Comprehension at the Word Level by Mary Freiman and Jerry T. Ball, Computational Principles of Working Memory in Sentence Comprehension by Richard L. Lewis, Shravan Vasishth and Julie A. Van Dyke, Toward an Integrated Model of Sentence Processing in Reading by Felix Engelmann, Think Aloud: Modeling the Cognitive Processes of Reading Comprehension by Beth Davey and Talking about Reading as Thinking: Modeling the Hidden Complexities of Online Reading Comprehension by Julie Coiro.

Narrative Comprehension

Narrative Comprehension by Rolf A. Zwaan, Joseph P. Magliano and Arthur C. Graesser, How Does the Mind Construct and Represent Stories? by Arthur C. Graesser, Brent Olde and Bianca Klettke, Comparing Cognitive and Computational Models of Narrative Structure by David B. Christian and Robert M. Young, An Architecture of Narrative Memory by Carlos León, Towards Narrative-based Knowledge Representation in Cognitive Systems by Nicolas Szilas, A Knowledge Representation That Models Memory in Narrative Comprehension by Rogelio E. Cardona-Rivera and R. Michael Young, From Episodic Memory to Narrative in a Cognitive Architecture by Tory S. Anderson, Toward a Situation Model in a Cognitive Architecture by Stuart M. Rodgers, Christopher W. Myers, Jerry Ball and Mary D. Freiman and Cognitive Models of Discourse Comprehension for Narrative Generation by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young.

Situation Models

The Construction of Situation Models in Narrative Comprehension: An Event-indexing Model by Rolf A. Zwaan, Mark C. Langston and Arthur C. Graesser, Situation Models in Language Comprehension and Memory by Rolf A. Zwaan and Gabriel A. Radvansky, Accessibility and Situation Models in Narrative Comprehension by Daniel G. Morrow, Steven L. Greenspan and Gordon H. Bower, Situation Models, Mental Simulations, and Abstract Concepts in Discourse Comprehension by Rolf A. Zwaan and Toward a Situation Model in a Cognitive Architecture by Stuart M. Rodgers, Christopher W. Myers, Jerry Ball and Mary D. Freiman.

Attention and Focus

Focusing and Discourse by Candace L. Sidner, Attention, Intentions, and the Structure of Discourse by Barbara J. Grosz and Candace L. Sidner, Focus of Attention: Constraining What Can Be Said Next by Kathleen F. McCoy and Jeannette Cheng and Using Focus to Constrain Language Generation by Kathleen R. McKeown.


Constructing Inferences during Narrative Text Comprehension by Arthur C. Graesser, Murray Singer and Tom Trabasso, A Computational Model of Inferencing in Narrative by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young, Consulting a User Model to Address a User's Inferences during Content Planning by Ingrid Zukerman and Richard McConachy, A Method for Generating Narrative Discourse to Prompt Inferences by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young, Measuring the Inference Load of a Text by Susan Kemper, A Unified Model for Predictive and Bridging Inferences by Franz Schmalhofer, Mark A. McDaniel and Dennis Keefe and Inferences about Mental States by Jason P. Mitchell.

Social Cognition

The Comprehension and Validation of Social Information by Robert S. Wyer and Gabriel A. Radvansky, Narrative-based Representations of Social Knowledge: Their Construction and Use in Comprehension, Memory, and Judgment by Robert S. Wyer, Rashmi Adaval and Stanley J. Colcombe, Social Comprehension and Judgment: The Role of Situation Models, Narratives, and Implicit Theories by Robert S. Wyer, Mental Simulation in Language Comprehension and Social Cognition by Rolf A. Zwaan and The Neural Bases of Social Cognition and Story Comprehension by Raymond A. Mar.

Affect and Emotion

A Call for Emotion Modeling in Interactive Storytelling by Sergio P. Hernandez and Vadim Bulitko, Emotion-based Interactive Storytelling with Artificial Intelligence by Sergio P. Hernandez, Vadim Bulitko and Emilie St. Hilaire, Computational Modeling of Players' Emotional Response Patterns to the Story Events of Video Games by Mijin Kim and Young Doh and Emotion-driven Narrative Generation by Brian O'Neill and Mark Riedl.

Cognitive Load

Realistic Cognitive Load Modeling for Enhancing Shared Mental Models in Human-agent Collaboration by Xiaocong Fan and John Yen and Modeling Cognitive Loads for Evolving Shared Mental Models in Human–agent Collaboration by Xiaocong Fan and John Yen.


Experiments with Discourse-level Choices and Readability by Sandra Williams, Ehud Reiter and Liesl Osman, Natural Language Generation (NLG) of Discourse Relations for Different Reading Levels by Sandra Williams and Enabling Text Readability Awareness during the Micro Planning Phase of NLG Applications by Priscilla Moraes, Kathleen McCoy and Sandra Carberry.


Flow by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Task Characteristics and the Experience of Optimal Flow in Human—computer Interaction by Jawaid A. Ghani and Satish P. Deshpande, The Dimensionality and Correlates of Flow in Human-computer Interactions by Jane Webster, Linda Klebe Trevino and Lisa Ryan, Towards Automatically Detecting Whether Student Is in Flow by Po-Ming Lee, Sin-Yu Jheng and Tzu-Chien Hsiao, Measuring Flow in Gaming Platforms by Azmi Omar and Nazlena Mohamad Ali and Dramatic Flow in Interactive 3D Narrative by Alyx Macfadyen, Andrew Stranieri and John Yearwood.

Natural Language Generation

Acquiring and Using Limited User Models in NLG by Ehud Reiter, Somayajulu Sripada and Sandra Williams, Natural Language Processing and User Modeling: Synergies and Limitations by Ingrid Zukerman and Diane Litman and Adaptive Generation in Dialogue Systems Using Dynamic User Modeling by Srinivasan Janarthanam and Oliver Lemon.

Narrative Generation

Reader-model-based Story Generation by Peter Mawhorter, Cognitive Models of Discourse Comprehension for Narrative Generation by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young and A Method for Generating Narrative Discourse to Prompt Inferences by James Niehaus and R. Michael Young.