Research and Development



The Rhetoric of Explanation by Robert J. Connors, The Nature of Explanation by Kenneth J. W. Craik, Forms of Explanation by Alan Garfinkel, Theories of Explanation by G. Randolph Mayes, Theories of Explanation by Joseph C. Pitt, Studies in the Logic of Explanation by Carl G. Hempel and Paul Oppenheim, Mechanism and Explanation by Mario Bunge, Mechanistic Artefact Explanation by Jeroen De Ridder, A Pragmatic Account of Mechanistic Artifact Explanation by Jan De Winter, Explanation: A Mechanist Alternative by Bechtel William and Adele Abrahamsen, Rethinking Mechanistic Explanation by Stuart S. Glennan, Heuristics, Descriptions, and the Scope of Mechanistic Explanation by Carlos Zednik, When Mechanistic Models Explain by Carl F. Craver and Explanation and Dialogue by Nigel Gilbert.


Conceptualizing Instructional Explanation by Gerald G. Duffy, Laura R. Roehler, Michael S. Meloth and Linda G. Vavrus, Instructional Explanations in the Disciplines edited by Mary K. Stein and Linda Kucan, Constructing Self-explanations and Scaffolded Explanations in Tutoring by Michelene T. H. Chi, Explorations of the Teacher’s Effectiveness in Explaining by Nathaniel L. Gage, Understanding Tutor Learning: Knowledge-building and Knowledge-telling in Peer Tutors’ Explanations and Questions by Rod D. Roscoe and Michelene T. H. Chi, The Effect of Instructional Explanations on Learning from Scientific Texts by Elaine B. Coleman, Ann L. Brown and Inna D. Rivkin, Explanation in Intelligent Tutoring Systems by Vladan Devedzic and Ljubomir Jerinic, Explanatory Mechanisms for Intelligent Tutoring Systems by Douglas P. Metzler and Cynthia J. Martincic, Automated Explanation for Educational Applications by Daniel D. Suthers and Exploring the Effectiveness of Knowledge Construction Dialogues by Carolyn P. Rosé, D. Bhembe, S. Siler, R. Srivastava and Kurt VanLehn.

Generating Explanations

An Analysis of Explanation and Its Implications for the Design of Explanation Planners by Daniel D. Suthers, Sequencing Explanations to Enhance Communicative Functionality by Daniel D. Suthers, Language Generation and Explanation by Kathleen R. McKeown and William R. Swartout, A Model for Generating Better Explanations by Peter van Beek, An Architecture for Planning Multi-paragraph Pedagogical Explanations by James C. Lester and Bruce W. Porter, Inside Case-based Explanation by Roger C. Schank, Alex Kass and Christopher K. Riesbeck, Adapting Language Production to Listener Feedback Behaviour by Hendrik Buschmeier and Stefan Kopp, A Reactive Approach to Explanation: Taking the User’s Feedback into Account by Johanna D. Moore and William R. Swartout, Generating Explanatory Discourse: A Plan Based, Interactive Approach by Alison Cawsey, Generating Coordinated Multimedia Explanations by Steven K. Feiner and Kathleen R. McKeown, Automating the Generation of Coordinated Multimedia Explanations by Steven K. Feiner and Kathleen R. McKeown, Graphics and Natural Language as Components of Automatic Explanation by Steven F. Roth, Joe Mattis and Xavier Mesnar, Coordinating Text and Graphics in Explanation Generation by Steven K. Feiner and Kathleen R. McKeown, Contextualized Text Explanations for Visualizations by Wallace Chigona and Thomas Strothotte, Generating Interactive Explanations by Alison Cawsey, Explanation and Interaction: The Computer Generation of Explanatory Dialogues by Kristiina Jokinen, Fine-grained Incremental and Interactive Elaboration in Explanatory Dialogue by Kentaro Inui, Akira Sugiyama, T. Takenobu and Hozumi Tanaka, Using a Cognitive Architecture to Plan Dialogs for the Adaptive Explanation of Proofs by Armin Fiedler, Using Meta-cognition for Regulating Explanatory Quality through a Cognitive Architecture by John Licato, Ron Sun and Selmer Bringsjord, Synthesis of Schematic Descriptions in Mechanical Design by Karl T. Ulrich and Warren P. Seering, Machine-generated Explanations of Engineering Models: A Compositional Modeling Approach by Thomas R. Gruber and Patrice O. Gautier and Steps from Explanation Planning to Model Construction Dialogues by Daniel Suthers, Beverly Woolf and Matthew Cornell.

Understanding Explanations

Explanation and Understanding by Frank C. Keil, The Roles of Mental Animations and External Animations in Understanding Mechanical Systems by Mary Hegarty, Sarah Kriz and Christina Cate, Understanding and Critiquing Multi-modal Engineering Design Explanations by Jon Wetzel, Pragmatics and Natural Language Understanding by Georgia M. Green, A Tutorial Dialogue System with Knowledge-based Understanding and Classification of Student Explanations by Vincent Aleven, Octav Popescu and Kenneth R. Koedinger, Abductive Theorem Proving for Analyzing Student Explanations by Pamela Jordan, Maxim Makatchev and Kurt VanLehn, Cognitive Changes from Explanations by Sangeet Khemlani and Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Computer Comprehension of Mechanical Device Descriptions by Michael G. Dyer, Jack Hodges and Margot Flowers, Mechanical Reasoning by Mental Simulation by Mary Hegarty, A Text Understanding Interface for Physical System Modeling and Simulation by Ehsan T. Esfahani and Venkatadriagaram Sundararajan, A Natural Language System to Aid Simulation Model Formulation by Horng-Ming Su and Voratas Kachitvichyanukul and Learning from Explanations: Extending One’s Own Knowledge during Collaborative Problem Solving by Attempting to Understand Explanations Received from Others by Rolf Ploetzner and Eric Fehse.

Questions and Answers

The Psychology of Curiosity: A Review and Reinterpretation by George Loewenstein, Information-seeking, Curiosity, and Attention: Computational and Neural Mechanisms by Jacqueline Gottlieb, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Manuel Lopes and Adrien Baranes, Attention, Learning, and the Value of Information by Jacqueline Gottlieb, Exploring Information about Concepts by Asking Questions by Arthur C. Graesser, Mark C. Langston and William B. Baggett, Towards a Theory of Question Asking by August Flammer, Question Asking and Answering by Arthur C. Graesser, Cathy L. McMahen and Brenda K. Johnson, Mechanisms that Generate Questions by Arthur C. Graesser, Natalie Person and John Huber, Question Answering and Generation by Arthur C. Graesser, Vasile Rus, Zhiqiang Cai and Xiangen Hu, Automatic Question Generation for Educational Applications – The State of the Art by Nguyen-Thinh Le, Tomoko Kojiri and Niels Pinkwart, Question Generation for Learning Evaluation by Liana Stanescu, Cosmin Stoica Spahiu, Anca Ion and Andrei Spahiu, Automatic Item Generation: Theory and Practice edited by Mark J. Gierl and Thomas M. Haladyna, Generating Natural Language Questions to Support Learning On-line by David Lindberg, Fred Popowich, John Nesbit and Phil Winne, Automatic Question Generation from Text for Self-directed Learning by David Lindberg, Automatically Generating Discussion Questions by David Adamson, Divyanshu Bhartiya, Biman Gujral, Radhika Kedia, Ashudeep Singh and Carolyn P. Rosé, Linguistic Considerations in Automatic Question Generation by Karen Mazidi and Rodney D. Nielsen, Question‐driven Explanatory Reasoning by Arthur C. Graesser, William B. Baggett and Kent Williams, Explanation‐driven Inquiry: Integrating Conceptual and Epistemic Scaffolds for Scientific Inquiry by William A. Sandoval and Brian J. Reiser, Encouraging Mindful Use of Prior Knowledge: Attempting to Construct Explanatory Answers Facilitates Learning by Michael Pressley, Eileen Wood, Vera E Woloshyn, Vicki Martin, Alison King and Deborah Menke, Goal‐based Explanation Evaluation by David B. Leake, Evaluating Explanations: A Content Theory by David B. Leake, Evaluation of Explanatory Hypotheses by Ashwin Ram and David Leake, An Analysis of Explanation Structures for Answering Complex Questions by Sarah Bourse and Patrick Saint-Dizier, Strategy Selection in Question Answering by Lynne M. Reder, Interrogatives: Questions, Facts and Dialogue by Jonathan Ginzburg, Questions in Dialogue by Asher Nicholas and Alex Lascarides, Question Asking during Tutoring by Arthur C. Graesser and Natalie K. Person, Learners’ Questions and Comprehension in a Tutoring Setting by Harold D. Fishbein, Thomas Eckart, Erika Lauver, Rachel Van Leeuwen and Daniel Langmeyer, Pedagogical Evaluation of Automatically Generated Questions by Karen Mazidi and Rodney D. Nielsen, Exploring the Effectiveness of Knowledge Construction Dialogues by Carolyn P. Rosé, D. Bhembe, S. Siler, R. Srivastava and Kurt VanLehn, Semantics and Pragmatics of Questions and Answers for Dialogue Agents by David Traum, Explanations in Context-aware Systems by Anind K. Dey, Generating Explanations in Context by Giuseppe Carenini and Johanna D. Moore, Generating Explanations in Context: The System Perspective by Vibhu O. Mittal and Cécile L. Paris, Participating in Explanatory Dialogues: Interpreting and Responding to Questions in Context by Johanna D. Moore and Joanna D. Moore, The Interpretation of Questions in Dialogue by Alex Lascarides and Nicholas Asher, For a Structured Meaning Account of Questions and Answers by Manfred Krifka, The Semantics of Questions and the Focusation of Answers by Manfred Krifka, On the Semantics of Questions and the Pragmatics of Answers by Jeroen Groenendijk and Martin Stokhof, The Effect of a Pragmatic Presupposition on Syntactic Structure in Question Answering by J. Kathryn Bock and Pragmatics and Pragmatic Considerations in Explanation by Mark D. Tschaepe.


Diagrams as Tools for Scientific Reasoning by Adele Abrahamsen and William Bechtel, The Roles of Mental Animations and External Animations in Understanding Mechanical Systems by Mary Hegarty, Sarah Kriz and Christina Cate, Individual Differences in Use of Diagrams as External Memory in Mechanical Reasoning by Mary Hegarty and Kathryn Steinhoff, Animated Diagrams: An Investigation into the Cognitive Effects of Using Animation to Illustrate Dynamic Processes by Sara Jones and Mike Scaife, Constructing Mental Models of Machines from Text and Diagrams by Mary Hegarty and Marcel Adam Just, From Diagrams to Models by Analogical Transfer by Patrick W. Yaner and Ashok K. Goel, Connecting Internal and External Representations: Spatial Transformations of Scientific Visualizations by J. Gregory Trafton, Susan B. Trickett and Farilee E. Mintz and External and Internal Representations in the Acquisition and Use of Knowledge: Visualization Effects on Mental Model Construction by Wolfgang Schnotz and Christian Kürschner.

Conceptual Models

Mental Models, Conceptual Models, and Modelling by Ileana M. Greca and Marco A. Moreira, Argumentation and Explanation in Conceptual Change: Indications From Protocol Analyses of Peer‐to‐peer Dialog by Christa S. C. Asterhan and Baruch B. Schwarz, The Role of Explanatory Models in Teaching for Conceptual Change by John Clement, Imagistic Simulation in Scientific Model Construction by John Clement, Three Types of Conceptual Change: Belief Revision, Mental Model Transformation, and Categorical Shift by Michelene T. H. Chi, Creating Scientific Concepts by Nancy Nersessian, Learning Conceptual Knowledge in the Engineering Sciences: Overview and Future Research Directions by Ruth A. Streveler, Thomas A. Litzinger, Ronald L. Miller and Paul S. Steif, Teaching for Conceptual Understanding by William F. McComas, Model-based Reasoning in Conceptual Change by Nancy J. Nersessian, Mental Modeling in Conceptual Change by Nancy J. Nersessian, Constructing Mental Models of Machines from Text and Diagrams by Mary Hegarty and Marcel Adam Just, Mental Models of Physical Mechanisms and their Acquisition by Johan de Kleer and John Seely Brown, Mental Models of Complex Systems: Structure and Function by Julie Heiser and Barbara Tversky, Simulations, Models, and Theories: Complex Physical Systems and Their Representations by Eric Winsberg and Multiple Conceptual Models of a Complex System by Albert L. Stevens and Allan Collins.

Mechanistic Reasoning

Children’s Mechanistic Reasoning by Molly S. Bolger, Marta Kobiela, Paul J. Weinberg and Richard Lehrer, How Does It Work? The Search for Explanatory Mechanisms by Mario Bunge, Developmental Changes within the Core of Artifact Concepts by Adee Matan and Susan Carey, Function, Goals and Intention: Children’s Teleological Reasoning about Objects by Deborah Kelemen, Young Children’s Rapid Learning about Artifacts by Krista Casler and Deborah Kelemen, The Role of Play in the Development of Insightful Tool-using Strategies by Brian Vandenberg, Hypothesizing Device Mechanisms: Opening up the Black Box by Richard J. Doyle, Reasoning about Hidden Mechanisms by Richard J. Doyle, Discovering Object Functionality by Bangpeng Yao, Jiayuan Ma and Li Fei-Fei, Learning to Operate Complex Devices: Effects of Conceptual and Operational Similarity by Peter Dixon and Gareth Gabrys, Thinking About Mechanisms by Peter Machamer, Lindley Darden and Carl F. Craver, The Mechanics of Comprehension and Comprehension of Mechanics by Mary Hegarty, Analytical Elements of Mechanisms by Dan B. Marghitu and Malcolm J. Crocker, Mechanical Reasoning by Mental Simulation by Mary Hegarty, Device Representation for Modeling Improvisation in Mechanical Use Situations by Jack Hodges, Predicting Object Functionality Using Physical Simulations by Lauren Hinkle and Edwin Olson, Automated Reasoning about Machine Geometry and Kinematics by Andrew Gelsey, Automated Modeling and Kinematic Simulation of Mechanisms by E. Sacks and L. Joskowicz, Kinematic Mental Simulations in Abduction and Deduction by Sangeet Suresh Khemlani, Robert Mackiewicz, Monica Bucciarelli and Philip N. Johnson-Laird and Individual Differences in Mental Animation during Mechanical Reasoning by Mary Hegarty and Valerie K. Sims.


Conditions of Identity by Andrew Brennan, The Concept of Identity by Eli Hirsch and Identity and Similarity by Igor Douven and Lieven Decock.


Mereology and Semiotics by Frederik Stjernfelt, Parts and Wholes in Semantics by Friederike Moltmann, Mereotopology: A Theory of Parts and Boundaries by Barry Smith, Mechanisms and Constitutive Relevance by Mark B. Couch, Constitutive Explanatory Relevance by Carl F. Craver, Selective Attention to the Parts of an Object by Shaun P. Vecera, Marlene Behrmann and John McGoldrick, Compositional Explanatory Relations and Mechanistic Reduction by Kari L. Theurer and Hypothesis Formation Using Part-whole Interrelations by Lindley Darden and Roy Rada.


Knowledge of Artefact Functions by Wybo Houkes, Coherence of Structural and Functional Descriptions of Technical Artefacts by Peter Kroes, Function and Explanation by A. R. Manser, The Teleological Notion of ‘Function’ by Karen Neander, Role Functions, Mechanisms, and Hierarchy by Carl F. Craver, Functional Explanation and the Function of Explanation by Tania Lombrozo and Susan Carey, Causal and Teleological Explanation by R. B. Braithwait, Teleological Explanation by Peter Geach, Teleological Explanations: An Etiological Analysis of Goals and Functions by Larry Wright, Generic Teleological Mechanisms and Their Use in Case Adaptation by Eleni Stroulia and A. Goel, Geometry and Context for Semantic Correspondences and Functionality Recognition in Man-made 3D Shapes by Hamid Laga, Michela Mortara and Michela Spagnuolo, Focusing on Function: Thinking below the Surface of Complex Natural Systems by Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver, Rebecca Jordan, Lei Liu, Steven Gray, Marylee Demeter, Spencer Rugaber, Swaroop Vattam and Ashok Goel, Function before Form: An Alternative Approach to Learning about Complex Systems by Lei Liu, C. E. Hmelo-Silver and S. Marathe, Teleology and Evolutionary Theory: Mechanisms and Meanings by Henry Byerly, Teleological Representations for Multi-modal Design Explanations by Jon Wetzel and Kenneth Forbus, Understanding and Critiquing Multi-modal Engineering Design Explanations by Jon Wetzel, The Role of Functionality in the Mental Representations of Engineering Students: Some Differences in the Early Stages of Expertise by Jarrod Moss, Kenneth Kotovsky and Jonathan Cagan and Representation of Multiple Concepts of a Design Object Based on Multiple Functions by Michael A. Rosenman, John S. Gero and Yuh-Shyan Hwang.

Spatial Reasoning

Spatial Reasoning by Ruth M. J. Byrne and Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Understanding How We Think about Space by Christina Manning, Maria D. Sera and Herbert L. Pick Jr., Mental Models and Working Memory in Temporal and Spatial Reasoning by André Vandierendonck and Gino De Vooght, Spatial Locations via Morpho-mereology by Matteo Cristani, Anthony G. Cohn and Brandon Bennett, Parts and Places: The Structures of Spatial Representation by Roberto Casati and Achille C. Varzi, Spatial Reasoning and Ontology: Parts, Wholes, and Locations by Achille C. Varzi, Location and Mereology by Cody Gilmore, A Spatial Approach to Mereology by Ned Markosian, Forms of Aggregativity by William C. Wimsatt, Qualitative Spatial Representation and Reasoning: An Overview by Anthony G. Cohn and Shyamanta M. Hazarika, Qualitative Spatial Change: Space-time Histories and Continuity by Shyamanta M. Hazarika, Spatial and Temporal Reasoning edited by Oliviero Stock and The Role of Spatial Reasoning in Engineering and the Design of Spatial Instruction by Sherry Hsi, Marcia C. Linn and John E. Bell.


Activities and Causation: The Metaphysics and Epistemology of Mechanisms by Peter Machamer, Synthesizing Activities and Interactions in the Concept of a Mechanism by James G. Tabery and Theory of Modeling and Simulation: Integrating Discrete Event and Continuous Complex Dynamic Systems by Bernard P. Zeigler, Herbert Praehofer and Tag Gon Kim.


An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise by John R. Pierce, Detection of Signals by Information Theoretic Criteria by Mati Wax and Thomas Kailath and Information theory, Inference, Learning Algorithms by David J. C. MacKay.


Causal Reasoning with Mental Models by Sangeet S. Khemlani, Aron K. Barbey and Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Mental Simulation of Causality by Gary L. Wells and Igor Gavanski, Mechanisms, Models, and Causation by Stuart S. Glennan, Modeling the Creation and Development of Cause-effect Pairs for Explanation Generation in a Cognitive Architecture by John Licato, Nick Marton, Boning Dong, Ron Sun and Selmer Bringsjord, Mental Models of Physical Causality by Antonella Carassa, Alessandra Valpiani, Giuliano Geminiani and Stefania Bandini, A Cognitive Model of Causal Reasoning about the Physical World by Antonella Carassa, Alessandra Valpiani, Giuliano Geminiani and Stefania Bandini, Assessing Causal Mechanistic Reasoning: Promoting System Thinking by Paul J. Weinberg, Causal and Constitutive Explanation Compared by Petri Ylikoski, Causality and Explanation by Wesley C. Salmon, Mechanisms and the Nature of Causation by Stuart S. Glennan, Causality in Device Behavior by Yumi Iwasaki and Herbert A. Simon, Activities and Causation: The Metaphysics and Epistemology of Mechanisms by Peter Machamer, Causal Reasoning Using Geometric Analysis by Kara L. Burak and Thomas F. Stahovich, The Use of Aggregation in Causal Simulation by Daniel S. Weld, Computing Design Rationales Using Causal Representation of Simulations by Kara L. Burak and Thomas F. Stahovich, Computing Design Rationales by Interpreting Simulations by Thomas F. Stahovich and Anand Raghavan, Causation at Different Levels: Tracking the Commitments of Mechanistic Explanations by Peter Fazekas and Gergely Kertész and Rationale in Planning: Causality, Dependencies, and Decisions by Stephen T. Polyak and Austin Tate.


Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes by Fred Dretske, Actions, Reasons, and Causes by Donald Davidson and Theory of Human Action by Alvin I. Goldman.


Explanation, Prediction, and Abstraction by Israel Scheffler, On Prediction and Explanation by Nicholas Rescher and On the Symmetry between Explanation and Prediction by Norwood R. Hanson.


A Representation of Parallel Activity Based on Events, Structure, and Causality by Amy L. Lansky, Models of Massive Parallelism: Analysis of Cellular Automata and Neural Networks by Max Garzon, Neural Networks and Physical Systems with Emergent Collective Computational Abilities by John J. Hopfield and Parallel Simulation: Parallel and Distributed Simulation Systems by Richard M. Fujimoto.

Temporal Reasoning

Spatial and Temporal Reasoning edited by Stock Oliviero, Mental Models and Working Memory in Temporal and Spatial Reasoning by André Vandierendonck and Gino De Vooght, Mental Models and Temporal Reasoning by Walter Schaeken, Philip N. Johnson-Laird and Gery d’Ydewalle, Strategies in Temporal Reasoning by Walter Schaeken and Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Temporal Reasoning based on Semi-intervals by Christian Freksa, Organization of Temporal Situations by Nancy Franklin and Todd Federico, Tense, Aspect, and Temporal Reasoning by Walter Schaeken, Grammatical Aspect and Mental Simulation by Benjamin K. Bergen and Kathryn Wheeler, Inferring Sequential Structure by Craig G. Nevill-Manning, Sequence Learning: Paradigms, Algorithms, and Applications edited by Ron Sun and C. Lee Giles, Machine Learning and Grammar Induction by Pat Langley and Pattern-recognizing Stochastic Learning Automata by Andrew G. Barto and P. Anandan.

Complex Adaptive Systems

A Taxonomy of Adaptive Systems by Jan Calta, Self-organization in Complex Systems by D. G. Green, Complex Adaptive Systems and Spontaneous Emergence by John H. Holland, Emergent Phenomena and Complex Systems by William Bechtel and Robert C. Richardson, Self-organization, Emergence and the Architecture of Complexity by Francis Heylighen, Self-organization and the Emergence of Complexity in Ecological Systems by Simon A. Levin, Design of Complex Adaptive Systems: Introduction by László Monostori and Kanji Ueda, Designing Search Based Adaptive Systems: A Quantitative Approach by Parisa Zoghi, Mark Shtern and Marin Litoiu, A Requirements-based Approach for the Design of Adaptive Systems by Vítor E. Silva Souza, The Engineering Design of Systems: Models and Methods by Dennis M. Buede, A Survey on Engineering Approaches for Self-adaptive Systems by Christian Krupitzer, Felix Maximilian Roth, Sebastian VanSyckel, Gregor Schiele and Christian Becker, A Design Space for Self-adaptive Systems by Yuriy Brun, Ron Desmarais, Kurt Geihs, Marin Litoiu, Antonia Lopes, Mary Shaw and Michael Smit, Engineering Self-adaptive Systems through Feedback Loops by Yuriy Brun, Giovanna Di Marzo Serugendo, Cristina Gacek, Holger Giese, Holger Kienle, Marin Litoiu, Hausi Müller, Mauro Pezzè and Mary Shaw, Awareness Requirements for Adaptive Systems by Vítor E. Silva Souza, Alexei Lapouchnian, William N. Robinson and John Mylopoulos, Complex Systems and Cognitive Processes by Roberto Serra and Gianni Zanarini and On Modeling and Simulations as Instruments for the Study of Complex Systems by Manfred Stöckler.


Thinking in Levels: A Dynamic Systems Approach to Making Sense of the World by Uri Wilensky and Mitchel Resnick, The Evolutionary Relevance of Abstraction and Representation by Andrew M. Winters, Abstraction and the Organization of Mechanisms by Arnon Levy and William Bechtel, Causality and Model Abstraction by Yumi Iwasaki and Herbert A Simon, The Role of Process Abstraction in Simulation by Paul A. Fishwick, Task-driven Model Abstraction by Daniel S. Weld and Sanjaya Addanki, The Use of Aggregation in Causal Simulation by Daniel S. Weld, Abstraction by Time-scale in Qualitative Simulation by Benjamin Kuipers, Reasoning with Multiple Abstraction Models by Yumi Iwasaki, Hierarchical Reasoning: Simulating Complex Processes over Multiple Levels of Abstraction by Paul A. Fishwick, Abstraction Level Traversal in Hierarchical Modeling by Paul A. Fishwick, Aggregation, Disaggregation, and the Challenge of Crossing Levels of Resolution When Designing and Connecting Models by Paul K. Davis and Richard Hillestad and Dynamic Focusing Approach to Mixed-level Simulation by Thomas C. Fall.


The Logic of Modern Physics by Percy W. Bridgman, Idealization by Alkistis Elliott‐Graves and Michael Weisberg, Three Kinds of Idealization by Michael Weisberg, Idealization and Abstraction: A Framework by Martin R. Jones and Abstraction, Idealization and Approximation by Ulrich Majer.


A Neuro-cognitive Theory of Deductive Relational Reasoning with Mental Models and Visual Images by Markus Knauff, Strategies in Relational Inference by Maxwell J. Roberts, Reasoning from Connectives and Relations between Entities by Robert Mackiewicz and Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine by John F. Sowa, Engineering Ontologies by Pim Borst, Hans Akkermans and Jan Top and An Ontology for Engineering Mathematics by Thomas R. Gruber and Gregory R. Olsen.


The Varieties of Mathematical Explanation by Johannes Hafner and Paolo Mancosu, Using a Cognitive Architecture to Plan Dialogs for the Adaptive Explanation of Proofs by Armin Fiedler, Explanatory Proofs in Mathematics by Erik Weber and Liza Verhoeven, Written Meta-cognition and Procedural Knowledge by William Baker and Bronisuave Czarnocha, Explanation in Mathematics by Paolo Mancosu, Mathematical Explanation by Mary Leng, Visualization, Explanation and Reasoning Styles in Mathematics edited by Paolo Mancosu, Klaus F. Jørgensen and Stig A. Pedersen, The Investigation of Conceptual Change and Argumentation in Mathematical Learning by Yen-Ting Chen and Shian Leou, Mathematical Discovery: On Understanding, Learning, and Teaching Problem Solving by George Polya, The Enhanced Indispensability Argument: Representational versus Explanatory Role of Mathematics in Science by Juha Saatsi, Mathematics, Explanation, and Scientific Knowledge by Mark Steiner, Mathematical Contributions to Scientific Explanation by Christopher Pincock, Using Math in Physics: Warrants and Epistemological Frames by Edward F. Redish and Thomas J. Bing, Theoretical Explanations in Mathematical Physics by Andrés Rivadulla, Mathematical Explanation in Science by Alan Baker, Mathematics and Aesthetic Considerations in Science by Mark Colyvan and Mathematics in Physics and Engineering by John Irving and Norman Mullineux.


Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science by Stenning Keith and Michiel Van Lambalgen, Research on Advanced Reasoning, Concept Acquisition and a Theory of Science Instruction by Anton E. Lawson, The Cognitive Science of Science: Explanation, Discovery, and Conceptual Change by Paul Thagard, Developing Models in Science Education edited by John K. Gilbert and Carolyn J. Boulter, The Cognitive Basis of Model-based Reasoning in Science by Nancy J. Nersessian, Theories-in-action: Some Theoretical and Empirical Issues in the Study of Students’ Conceptual Frameworks in Science by Rosalind Driver and Gaalen Erickson, Explaining Science: A Cognitive Approach by Ronald N. Giere, Explanations with Models in Science Education by John K. Gilbert, Carolyn J. Boulter and Margaret Rutherford, Recognizing Mechanistic Reasoning in Student Scientific Inquiry: A Framework for Discourse Analysis Developed from Philosophy of Science by Rosemary S. Russ, Rachel E. Scherr, David Hammer and Jamie Mikeska, On the Meaning of Scientific Terms by Peter Achinstein, Language of Physics, Language of Math: Disciplinary Culture and Dynamic Epistemology by Edward F. Redish and Eric Kuo, The Language of Modern Physics by Ernest H. Hutten and Intelligent Dialogue Support for Physics Problem Solving: Some Preliminary Mixed Results by John Connelly and Sandra Katz.


Engineering Thinking and Rhetoric by John A. Robinson, The Epistemic Implications of Engineering Rhetoric by Louis L. Bucciarelli, Writing like an Engineer: A Rhetorical Education by Dorothy A. Winsor, Storytelling and the Development of Discourse in the Engineering Design Process by Peter Lloyd and Interpreting Scientific and Engineering Practices: Integrating the Cognitive, Social, and Cultural Dimensions by Nancy J. Nersessian.

Computer-aided Engineering and Simulation

Intelligent Computer-aided Engineering by Kenneth D. Forbus, Intelligent Visual Interactive Modelling by Robert D. Hurrion, An Architecture for Incorporating Spoken Dialog Interaction with Complex Simulations by Susann Luperfoy, Eric Domeshek, Elias Holman, David Struck and S. Ramachandran, Research on Collaborative Simulation Platform Supporting Design of Complex Product by Bin Guo, Guangleng Xiong and Xiaobo Chen, A Linguistic Approach Proposal for Mechanical Design Using Natural Language Processing by João C. Linhares and Altamir Dias, A Text Understanding Interface for Physical System Modeling and Simulation by Ehsan T. Esfahani and Venkatadriagaram Sundararajan, Machine Learning and Simulation Model Specification by Vakulathil Abdurahiman and Ray J. Paul, Artificial Intelligence, Simulation, and Modeling by Lawrence E. Widman and Kenneth A. Loparo, Artificial Intelligence and Simulation: From Cognitive Simulation toward Cognizant Simulation by Tuncer I. Ören, An Introspective Environment for Knowledge Based Simulation by Venkataseshan Baskaran and Yenumula V. Reddy and Explanation Systems for Computer Simulations by David H. Helman and Akash Bahuguna.