Research and Development

Educational Role-playing Games


Role-playing Game Studies: Transmedia Foundations edited by Sebastian Deterding and José Zagal, Psychology and Role-playing Games by Sarah L. Bowman and Andreas Lieberoth, The Functions of Role-playing Games: How Participants Create Community, Solve Problems and Explore Identity by Sarah L. Bowman, Learning and Role-playing Games by Jessica Hammer, Alexandra To, Karen Schrier, Sarah L. Bowman and Geoff Kaufman, Exploring the Use of Role-playing Games in Education by Richard H. P. Prager and Imaginative Role-playing as a Medium for Moral Development: Dungeons & Dragons Provides Moral Training by Jennifer C. Wright, Daniel E. Weissglass and Vanessa Casey.

Computer-aided Storytelling

Rolling the Dice: Imagining Generative AI as a Dungeons & Dragons Storytelling Companion by Jose M. Santiago, Richard L. Parayno, Jordan A. Deja and Briane P. V. Samson, The Dungeon Master's Dashboard by Ahmed A. Zuraiq, Helena Alvarenga and Ryan Smith, Interviews Towards Designing Support Tools for TTRPG Game Masters by Devi Acharya, Michael Mateas and Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Story Improvisation in Tabletop Roleplaying Games: Towards a Computational Assistant for Game Masters by Devi Acharya, Michael Mateas and Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Towards Computational Support with Language Models for TTRPG Game Masters by Jack Kelly, Michael Mateas and Noah Wardrip-Fruin.

Automated Storytelling

Dungeons and Dragons as a Dialog Challenge for Artificial Intelligence by Chris Callison-Burch, Gaurav Singh Tomar, Lara J. Martin, Daphne Ippolito, Suma Bailis and David Reitter, Procedural Storytelling in Dungeons & Dragons by Steven Lumpkin, Procedural Storytelling in Game Design edited by Tanya X. Short and Tarn Adams, Narrative Improvisation: Simulating Game Master Choices by Jonathan Strugnell, Marsha Berry, Fabio Zambetta and Stefan Greuter, Deep Dungeons and Dragons: Learning Character-action Interactions from Role-playing Game Transcripts by Annie Louis and Charles Sutton, Storytelling with Dialogue: A Critical Role Dungeons and Dragons Dataset by Revanth Rameshkumar and Peter Bailey, Fireball: A Dataset of Dungeons and Dragons Actual-play with Structured Game State Information by Andrew Zhu, Karmanya Aggarwal, Alexander Feng, Lara J. Martin and Chris Callison-Burch, Multi-agent Collaboration: Harnessing the Power of Intelligent LLM Agents by Yashar Talebirad and Amirhossein Nadiri and Generative Agent-based Modeling with Actions Grounded in Physical, Social, or Digital Space Using Concordia by Alexander S. Vezhnevets, John P. Agapiou, Avia Aharon, Ron Ziv, Jayd Matyas, Edgar A. Duéñez-Guzmán, William A. Cunningham, Simon Osindero, Danny Karmon and Joel Z. Leibo.

Game Mechanics

Game Mechanics: Advanced Game Design by Ernest Adams and Joris Dormans, Modeling and Generating Strategy Games Mechanics by Tobias Mahlmann, Generating and Adapting Game Mechanics by Alexander Zook and Mark O. Riedl, Narrative Game Mechanics by Teun Dubbelman, Narrative Game Mechanics and Interactive Fiction by Kirsty M. McGill and A Demonstration of Mechanic Maker: An AI for Mechanics Co-creation by Vardan Saini and Matthew Guzdial.


Building Imaginary Worlds: The Theory and History of Subcreation by Mark J. P. Wolf, The Routledge Companion to Imaginary Worlds edited by Mark J. P. Wolf, Actual Minds, Possible Worlds by Jerome Bruner, Experiencing Narrative Worlds: On the Psychological Activities of Reading by Richard J. Gerrig and Worldbuilding in Role-playing Games by Karen Schrier, Evan Torner and Jessica Hammer.


Generative Agents: Interactive Simulacra of Human Behavior by Joon S. Park, Joseph C. O'Brien, Carrie J. Cai, Meredith R. Morris, Percy Liang and Michael S. Bernstein, Identity Models for Role-play Dialogue Characters by Patricia Chaffey and David Traum, Meet your Favorite Character: Open-domain Chatbot Mimicking Fictional Characters with Only a Few Utterances by Seungju Han, Beomsu Kim, Jin Y. Yoo, Seokjun Seo, Sangbum Kim, Enkhbayar Erdenee and Buru Chang, Evaluating and Inducing Personality in Pre-trained Language Models by Guangyuan Jiang, Manjie Xu, Song-Chun Zhu, Wenjuan Han, Chi Zhang and Yixin Zhu, Stylistic Dialogue Generation Based on Character Personality in Narrative Films by Weilai Xu, Role-play with Large Language Models by Murray Shanahan, Kyle McDonell and Laria Reynolds, Keep Calm and Explore: Language Models for Action Generation in Text-based Games by Shunyu Yao, Rohan Rao, Matthew Hausknecht and Karthik Narasimhan and Can Large Language Models Play Text Games Well? Current State-of-the-art and Open Questions by Chen F. Tsai, Xiaochen Zhou, Sierra S. Liu, Jing Li, Mo Yu and Hongyuan Mei.


Predicting Reader Response in Narrative by Inderjeet Mani, Audience Response Prediction from Textual Context by Ibrahim Shoer, Berker Turker and Engin Erzin, Player Behavior and Personality Modeling for Interactive Storytelling in Games by Edirlei S. de Lima, Bruno Feijó and Antonio L. Furtado, Using Interactive Storytelling to Identify Personality Traits by Raul Paradeda, Maria J. Ferreira, Carlos Martinho and Ana Paiva, Reader-model-based Story Generation by Peter Mawhorter, Optimizing Players' Expected Enjoyment in Interactive Stories by Hong Yu and Mark O. Riedl, Personality and Preference Modeling for Adaptive Storytelling by Edirlei S. de Lima, Bruno Feijó, Antonio L. Furtado and Vinicius M. Gottin, Learner Modeling Using Educational Games: A Review of the Literature by Mohamed A. Khenissi, Fathi Essalmi and Mohamed Jemni, A Systematic Review of Data-driven Approaches in Player Modeling of Educational Games by Danial Hooshyar, Moslem Yousefi and Heuiseok Lim and Serious Games Analytics: Methodologies for Performance Measurement, Assessment, and Improvement edited by Christian S. Loh, Yanyan Sheng and Dirk Ifenthaler.


Shared Fantasy: Role Playing Games as Social Worlds by Gary A. Fine, Verbal Communication of Story Facilitators in Multi-player Role-playing Games by Anders Tychsen, Thea Brolund and Michael Hitchens, Dialogue and Interaction in Role-playing Games: Playful Communication as Ludic Culture by Frans Mäyrä, Language, Interaction, and Affect in Tabletop Role-playing Games by Keerthi S. Vaidehi and Dialogue in the Wild: Learning from a Deployed Role-playing Game with Humans and Bots by Kurt Shuster, Jack Urbanek, Emily Dinan, Arthur Szlam and Jason Weston.


Psychology and Role-playing Games by Sarah L. Bowman and Andreas Lieberoth, Imaginative Role-playing as a Medium for Moral Development: Dungeons & Dragons Provides Moral Training by Jennifer C. Wright, Daniel E. Weissglass and Vanessa Casey, Atlas of Moral Psychology edited by Kurt Gray and Jesse Graham, The Puzzle of Imaginative Resistance by Tamar S. Gendler, Foundations of Decision Analysis by Ali E. Abbas and Ronald A. Howard and Algorithms for Decision Making by Mykel J. Kochenderfer, Tim A. Wheeler and Kyle H. Wray.

Theory of Mind

ToMChallenges: A Principle-guided Dataset and Diverse Evaluation Tasks for Exploring Theory of Mind by Xiaomeng Ma, Lingyu Gao and Qihui Xu and Boosting Theory-of-mind Performance in Large Language Models via Prompting by Shima R. Moghaddam and Christopher J. Honey.


In-context Impersonation Reveals Large Language Models' Strengths and Biases by Leonard Salewski, Stephan Alaniz, Isabel Rio-Torto, Eric Schulz and Zeynep Akata, In Conversation with Artificial Intelligence: Aligning Language Models with Human Values by Atoosa Kasirzadeh and Iason Gabriel and Constitutional AI: Harmlessness from AI Feedback by Yuntao Bai, Saurav Kadavath, Sandipan Kundu, Amanda Askell, Jackson Kernion, Andy Jones, Anna Chen, Anna Goldie, Azalia Mirhoseini, Cameron McKinnon, Carol Chen, Catherine Olsson, Christopher Olah, Danny Hernandez, Dawn Drain, Deep Ganguli, Dustin Li, Eli Tran-Johnson, Ethan Perez, Jamie Kerr, Jared Mueller, Jeffrey Ladish, Joshua Landau, Kamal Ndousse, Kamile Lukosuite, Liane Lovitt, Michael Sellitto, Nelson Elhage, Nicholas Schiefer, Noemi Mercado, Nova DasSarma, Robert Lasenby, Robin Larson, Sam Ringer, Scott Johnston, Shauna Kravec, Sheer El Showk, Stanislav Fort, Tamera Lanham, Timothy Telleen-Lawton, Tom Conerly, Tom Henighan, Tristan Hume, Samuel R. Bowman, Zac Hatfield-Dodds, Ben Mann, Dario Amodei, Nicholas Joseph, Sam McCandlish, Tom Brown and Jared Kaplan.


STORYEVAL: An Empirical Evaluation Framework for Narrative Generation by Jonathan P. Rowe, Scott W. McQuiggan, Jennifer L. Robison, Derrick R. Marcey and James C. Lester, Evaluating Story Generation Systems Using Automated Linguistic Analyses by Melissa Roemmele, Andrew S. Gordon and Reid Swanson, Fable Reborn: Investigating Gameplay Experience between a Human Player and a Virtual Dungeon Master by Charlene Ang, Lorraine R. Cortel, Carlo L. Santos and Ethel Ong, Cross-format Analysis of the Gaming Experience in Multi-player Role-playing Games by Anders Tychsen, Ken Newman, Thea Brolund and Michael Hitchens, GameFlow: A Model for Evaluating Player Enjoyment in Games by Penelope Sweetser and Peta Wyeth, The Challenge of Evaluating Player Experience in Tabletop Role-playing Games by Antonios Liapis and Alena Denisova, Development of a General Framework for Evaluating Games-based Learning by Thomas Connolly, Mark H. Stansfield and Thomas Hainey and Evaluating Games-based Learning by Thomas Hainey and Thomas Connolly.

Reinforcement Learning

How to Motivate Your Dragon: Teaching Goal-driven Agents to Speak and Act in Fantasy Worlds by Prithviraj Ammanabrolu, Jack Urbanek, Margaret Li, Arthur Szlam, Tim Rocktäschel and Jason Weston and Reinforcement Learning for Dialogue Generation: A Systematic Literature Review by Sameera Kanwal and Muhammad S. Farooq.