Research and Development

Artificial Intelligence and History

Philosophy of History

The Philosophy of History: An Introduction by Mark Day and A Companion to the Philosophy of History and Historiography edited by Aviezer Tucker.


Autobiographical Memory edited by David C. Rubin.

Collective Memory

Collective Memory by James V. Wertsch.

Objectivity and Subjectivity

Objectivity by Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison.

Sensemaking and Meaning-making

Engaging Students in Historical Reasoning: The Need for Dialogic History Education by Carla van Boxtel and Jannet van Drie and History Teaching as a Designed Meaning-making Process: Teacher Facilitation of Student-subject Relationships by Heidi E. Knudsen.


The Role of Causation in History by James Brien and History and Causality by Mark Hewitson.


Knowledge and Explanation in History: An Introduction to the Philosophy of History by Ronald F. Atkinson.


Justifying Historical Descriptions by C. Behan McCullagh.


Narrative and History by Alun Munslow and Narrative Factuality: A Handbook edited by Monika Fludernik and Marie-Laure Ryan.


Interpretation in History by Hayden V. White.

Machine Reading Comprehension

Machine Reading Comprehension: A Literature Review by Xin Zhang, An Yang, Sujian Li and Yizhong Wang, A Survey on Machine Reading Comprehension Systems by Razieh Baradaran, Razieh Ghiasi and Hossein Amirkhani and A Survey of Machine Narrative Reading Comprehension Assessments by Yisi Sang, Xiangyang Mou, Jing Li, Jeffrey Stanton and Mo Yu.

Question Answering

The NarrativeQA Reading Comprehension Challenge by Tomáš Kočiský, Jonathan Schwarz, Phil Blunsom, Chris Dyer, Karl Moritz Hermann, Gábor Melis and Edward Grefenstette and Narrative Question Answering with Cutting-edge Open-domain QA Techniques: A Comprehensive Study by Xiangyang Mou, Chenghao Yang, Mo Yu, Bingsheng Yao, Xiaoxiao Guo, Saloni Potdar and Hui Su.

Automatic Story Generation

A Planning Approach to Story Generation for History Education by Mark O. Riedl and R. Michael Young, Learning to Tell Tales: A Data-driven Approach to Story Generation by Neil McIntyre and Mirella Lapata, Towards an Author Intention Based Computational Model of Story Generation by Feng Zhu and Cungen Cao, Storytelling with Adjustable Narrator Styles and Sentiments by Boyang Li, Mohini Thakkar, Yijie Wang and Mark O. Riedl, Generating Different Story Tellings from Semantic Representations of Narrative by Elena Rishes, Stephanie M. Lukin, David K. Elson and Marilyn A. Walker and Story Generation with Crowdsourced Plot Graphs by Boyang Li, Stephen Lee-Urban, George Johnston and Mark O. Riedl.