Research and Development

Interactive Narrative and Focalization


Stylistics Meets Cognitive Science: Studying Style in Fiction and Readers’ Attention from an Interdisciplinary Perspective by Catherine Emmott, Anthony J. Sanford and Eugene Dawydiak, Language in Literature: Style and Foregrounding by Geoffrey N. Leech, Rhetorical Control of Readers’ Attention: Psychological and Stylistic Perspectives on Foreground and Background in Narrative by Catherine Emmott, A. Sanford and Marc Alexander, Focusing and Backgrounding Operators by Arnim Von Stechow, Mental Models Contribute to Foregrounding during Text Comprehension by Arthur M. Glenberg, Marion Meyer and Karen Lindem, Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning by David I. Beaver and Brady Z. Clark, The Role of Verb Tense and Verb Aspect in the Foregrounding of Information during Reading by Manuel Carreiras, Núria Carriedo, María A. Alonso and Angel Fernández, Aspect and Foregrounding in Discourse in Discourse and Syntax by Paul J. Hopper, Foregrounding Effects in Discourse Comprehension by Alan M. Lesgold, Steven F. Roth and Mary E. Curtis, Foregrounding and Its Effect on Readers’ Perception by Jemeljan F. Hakemulder, Context, Attention and Depth of Processing during Interpretation by Anthony J. Sanford, Attention and Aesthetics by Chaomei Chen and An Analysis of Narratives: Identifying Central, Supportive, and Distracting Content by Richard C. Omanson.


Subjectivity, Perspectivization, and Modality from a Cognitive Linguistic Point of View by José Sanders and Wilbert Spooren, Viewpoint in Language: A Multimodal Perspective edited by Barbara Dancygier and Eve Sweetser, Point of View in Fiction: The Development of a Critical Concept by Norman Friedman, Point of View, Perspective, and Focalization: Modeling Mediation in Narrative edited by Peter Hühn, Wolf Schmid and Jörg Schönert, Situation Models and Point of View in Narrative Understanding by Daniel Morrow, Constructing Literary Character and Perspective: An Approach from Psychology and Blending Theory by Marcus Hartner, Narrative Perspective and the Interpretation of Characters’ Motives by Willie van Peer and Henk Pander Maat and Understanding and Predicting Social Events: The Effects of Narrative Construction on Inference Generation by Kristi A. Costabile and Stanley B. Klein.


Focalization: The Subject and the Act of Shaping Perspective by Tomás Kubícek, Narratological Focalization Models: A Critical Survey by Eva Broman, Focalization and Narration: Theoretical and Terminological Refinements by Goran Nieragden, Toward a Computational Model of Focalization in Narrative by Byung-Chull Bae, Yun-Gyung Cheong and R. Michael Young, Reading Narrative: The Implications of Using Focalization in Narrative Fiction by Maryam Beyad and Fatemeh Nemati, Sensory Imagination and Narrative Perspective: Explaining Perceptual Focalization by Thor Grünbaum, Means of Meaning Making in Literary Art: Focalization, Mode of Narration, and Granularity by Peer F. Bundgaard, Focalization and Digital Fiction by David Ciccoricco, The Teller and the Observer: Narration and Focalisation in Narrative Texts in Recent Literary Theory by Marjet Berendsen, Shifting Perspectives: Readers’ Feelings and Literary Response by David S. Miall and Don Kuiken and Focalization in Graphic Narrative by Silke Horstkotte and Nancy Pedri.


Narration and Point of View in Fiction and the Cinema by Seymour Chatman, Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film by Seymour Chatman, Point of View in the Cinema: A Theory of Narration and Subjectivity in Classical Film by Edward R. Branigan, Narrative Comprehension and Film by Edward R. Branigen, Focalisation in Film Narrative by Celestino Deleyto and Focalization, Ocularization and Auricularization in Film and Literature by Sabine Schlickers.


Cinematography by Kris Malkiewicz and M. David Mullen, Cinematography: Theory and Practice: Image Making for Cinematographers and Directors by Blain Brown, Virtual Camera Planning: A Survey by Marc Christie, Rumesh Machap, Jean-Marie Normand, Patrick Olivier and Jonathan Pickering, Real-time Cinematic Camera Control for Interactive Narratives by Dan Amerson, Shaun Kime and R. Michael Young, Narrative-driven Camera Control for Cinematic Replay of Computer Games by Quentin Galvane, Remi Ronfard, Marc Christie and Nicolas Szilas, Expressive Autonomous Cinematography for Interactive Virtual Environments by Bill Tomlinson, Bruce Blumberg and Delphine Nain, The Virtual Cinematographer: A Paradigm for Automatic Real-time Camera Control and Directing by Li-wei He, Michael F. Cohen and David H. Salesin, Camerabots: Cinematography for Games with Non-player Characters as Camera Operators by James Kneafsey and Camplan: A Camera Planning Agent by Nicolas Halper and Patrick Olivier.

Interactive and Emergent Narrative

Interaction and Expressivity in Video Games: Harnessing the Rhetoric of Film by Laurent Cozic, Stephen Boyd Davis and Huw Jones, Cognitive Models of Discourse Comprehension for Narrative Generation by James M. Niehaus and R. Michael Young, Perspective in Contemporary Computer Games by Jan-Noël Thon, Perspective as Participation by Richard J. Gerrig, Focalization in 3D Video Games by Michael Nitsche, Game Movement as Enactive Focalization by Yotam Shibolet, Narrative Meaning Creation in Interactive Storytelling by Joshua Tanenbaum and Angela Tomizu, An Empirical Study of Cognition and Theatrical Improvisation by Brian Magerko, Waleed Manzoul, Mark Riedl, Allan Baumer, Daniel Fuller, Kurt Luther and Celia Pearce, Shared Mental Models in Improvisational Theatre by Daniel Fuller and Brian Magerko, Updating Situation Models during Narrative Comprehension by Daniel G. Morrow, Gordon H. Bower and Steven L. Greenspan and Narrative Theory and Emergent Interactive Narrative by Sandy Louchart and Ruth Aylett.